Vogt et al, Reproductive Health. The review indicated a direct association between skeletal and mandibular osteopenia and loss of alveolar crestal height and tooth loss in postmenopausal women. Original articles that reported on the risk factors for periodontal disease were included. This aggregation within families strongly suggests a genetic predisposition. More studies carried out in some of the developed countries show changing patterns of periodontal disease progression. Janket, A. Wightman, A. E. Baird, T. E. van Dyke, and J. 18 0 obj Risk Factors of Periodontal Disease: Review of the Literature. endobj MEDLINE (1980 to Jan 2014), PubMed (using medical subject headings), and Google Scholar were searched using the following terms in different combinations: “periodontal disease,” “periodontitis,” “risk factors,” and “causal.” This was supplemented by hand-searching in peer-reviewed journals and cross-referenced with the articles accessed. AlJehani, Yousef A.; Thus, it is important to consider the shared environmental and behavioral risk factors in any family. B. Konstantinidis, “Cigarette smoking associated with advanced periodontal destruction in a Greek sample population of patients with periodontal disease,”, A. Zini, H. D. Sgan-Cohen, and W. Marcenes, “Socio-economic position, smoking, and plaque: a pathway to severe chronic periodontitis,”, O. Özçaka, N. Biçakci, P. Pussinen, T. Sorsa, T. Köse, and N. Buduneli, “Smoking and matrix metalloproteinases, neutrophil elastase and myeloperoxidase in chronic periodontitis,”, A. Y. Shchipkova, H. N. Nagaraja, and P. S. Kumar, “Subgingival microbial profiles of smokers with periodontitis,”, J. Bergström, “Oral hygiene compliance and gingivitis expression in cigarette smokers,”, J. Other factors increasing the risk of developing periodontal disease: McDevitt et al. Risk factors including tobacco smoking modify the host response to the challenge of bacteria in microbial dental plaque [25, 26]. 4 0 obj Subgingival plaque from deepened periodontal pockets is dominated by gram-negative anaerobic rods and spirochetes [14, 15]. endobj <>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI]/XObject<>>>/Type/XObject/Subtype/Form/BBox[0 0 600.05 792]/Matrix[1 0 0 1 0 0]/FormType 1>>stream endstream 2014 . [Correlation between psychosocial factors and periodontal disease--a systematic review of the literature]. - Sources. Bacterial infections may often provide a strong stimulus for a systemic acute phase response that may result in increased production of acute-phase proteins like CRP, macroglobulin, and serum amyloid [152]. 6 0 obj x�+�r Strong evidence has implicated Porphyromonas gingivalis [16] and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans [17, 18] to the pathogenesis of adult periodontitis. Bascones A, González J, Sanz J (2014) Diabetes and periodontal disease. Furthermore, there is evidence that suggests that the increase in the levels of systemic markers of inflammation, such as the C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), is associated with cardiovascular diseases [51]. Also, the classical risk factors of CVD cannot account for all the variation in the incidence of CVD cases [141]. Marcaccini et al. Box 10219, Riyadh 11433, Saudi Arabia, A. Bascones-Martínez, M. Muñoz-Corcuera, S. Noronha, P. Mota, C. Bascones-Ilundain, and J. Campo-Trapero, “Host defence mechanisms against bacterial aggression in periodontal disease: basic mechanisms,”, L. Zhang, B. S. Henson, P. M. Camargo, and D. T. Wong, “The clinical value of salivary biomarkers for periodontal disease,”, J. M. Albandar, “Epidemiology and risk factors of periodontal diseases,”, D. R. Haynes, “Emerging and future therapies for the treatment of bone loss associated with chronic inflammation,”, J. Khalili, “Periodontal disease: an overview for medical practitioners,”, G. C. Armitage, “Development of a classification system for periodontal diseases and conditions,”, D. Baldi, A. Izzotti, P. Bonica, P. Pera, and A. Pulliero, “Degenerative periodontal-diseases and oral osteonecrosis: the role of gene-environment interactions,”, G. C. Armitage and M. P. Cullinan, “Comparison of the clinical features of chronic and aggressive periodontitis,”, G. Blandino, I. Milazzo, D. Fazio et al., “Antimicrobial susceptibility and, P. J. Pussinen, S. Paju, P. Mäntylä, and T. Sorsa, “Serum microbial-and host-derived markers of periodontal diseases: a review,”, J. Ruby and J. Barbeau, “The buccale puzzle: the symbiotic nature of endogenous infections of the oral cavity,”, B. J. Paster, I. Olsen, J. x�+�r �*T0T0 Bi������f����� � �3���T%���*�km��u��. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 30 0 obj 10 0 obj endstream We carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the influence of PD on dementia. There are many studies that demonstrate an association between diabetes and an increased susceptibility to oral infections including periodontal disease [30–34]. endobj %���� Poor oral health, including caries, tooth loss, and periodontitis, is ubiquitous worldwide, and is potentially treatable and preventable. �*T0T0 Bi������f����� � Evidence is reviewed on the potential roles of modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors associated with periodontal disease. Bacteremia from periodontitis and dental disease is known to be the primary cause of infective endocarditis [52]. Offenbacher et al. Instead, a descriptive assessment of the results based on the extracted data was performed. x�+�r The subgingival microflora in periodontitis can harbor hundreds of bacterial species but only a small number has been associated with the progression of disease and considered etiologically important. The risk of stroke was significantly increased by the presence of periodontitis [relative risk 1.63 (1.25, 2.00)]. demonstrated that the mean annual rate of bone loss among the initially 70-year-old subjects was 0.28 mm compared to 0.07 on the 25-year-old individuals [112]. This variability in presentation of significant signs of disease makes diagnosis difficult, not only in declaring if a patient suffers from the disease but also in detecting patients who do not suffer from the disease and differentiating between adult and aggressive forms of periodontitis. <>>>/Contents 27 0 R/Parent 3 0 R>> schneig@mednet.uni-muenster.de We are committed to sharing findings related to COVID-19 as quickly as possible. 9 0 obj Low income population, ethnic minorities and the elderly show the higher incidence of gum disease, mainly due to lack of access to dental health care and dental insurance. The specifics of the disease process are obscured by our incomplete understanding of the role of various risk factors. endobj <>stream Original articles that reported on the risk factors for periodontal disease were included. (42) longitudinally explored a variety of markers as possible periodontal risk factors in subjects free of periodontal disease. Maélson Klever da Silva, Antonio Carlos Gonçalves de Carvalho, Even Herlany Pereira Alves, Felipe Rodolfo Pereira da Silva, Larissa dos Santos Pessoa, Daniel Fernando Pereira Vasconcelos, " Genetic Factors and the Risk of Periodontitis Development: Findings from a Systematic Review Composed of 13 Studies of Meta-Analysis with 71,531 Participants ", International Journal of Dentistry,. The increased severity of periodontal disease and bone loss with age is probably related to the length of time, where the periodontal tissues have been exposed to bacterial plaque, and is considered to reflect individual’s cumulative oral history [113]. Patients with undiagnosed or poorly controlled diabetes mellitus type 1 or type 2 are at higher risk for periodontal disease. These include antihypertensives, narcotic analgesics, some tranquilizers and sedatives, antihistamines, and antimetabolites. x�+�r Many works in the literature report familial aggregation of periodontal diseases, but due to different terminology, classification systems, and lack of standardized methods of clinical examination, it is difficult to compare reports directly. A. García-Iglesias, “Periodontal aspects in menopausal women undergoing hormone replacement therapy,”, A. Tilakaratne, M. Soory, A. W. Ranasinghe, S. M. X. Corea, S. L. Ekanayake, and M. de Silva, “Effects of hormonal contraceptives on the periodontium, in a population of rural Sri-Lankan women,”, A. Agueda, J. M. Ramón, C. Manau, A. Guerrero, and J. J. Echeverría, “Periodontal disease as a risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes: a prospective cohort study,”, W. Kaźmierczak, P. Fiegler, P. Wegrzyn, H. Fiegler-Mecik, B. Przybyłek, and K. Kamiński, “Risk assessment for preterm delivery in pregnant women with active periodontitis,”, M. Vogt, A. W. Sallum, J. G. Cecatti, and S. S. Morais, “Periodontal disease and some adverse perinatal outcomes in a cohort of low risk pregnant women,”, J. K. Baskaradoss, A. Geevarghese, and V. R. Kutty, “Maternal periodontal status and preterm delivery: a hospital based case-control study,”, J. G. Collins, M. A. Smith, R. R. Arnold, and S. Offenbacher, “Effects of, C. M. Gazolla, A. Ribeiro, M. R. Moysés, L. A. M. Oliveira, L. J. Pereira, and A. W. Sallum, “Evaluation of the incidence of preterm low birth weight in patients undergoing periodontal therapy,”, P. Axelsson and J. Lindhe, “Effect of controlled oral hygiene procedures on caries and periodontal disease in adults,”, V. Baelum, L. Wen-Min, O. Fejerskov, and C. Xia, “Tooth mortality and periodontal conditions in 60–80-year-old Chinese,”, J. D. Beck, G. G. Koch, R. G. Rozier, and G. E. Tudor, “Prevalence and risk indicators for periodontal attachment loss in a population of older community-dwelling blacks and whites,”, A. Hugoson, L. Laurell, and D. Lundgren, “Frequency distribution of individuals aged 20–70 years according to severity of periodontal disease experience in 1973 and 1983,”, D. Locker and J. L. Leake, “Periodontal attachment loss in independently living older adults in Ontario, Canada,”, F. Mack, P. Mojon, E. Budtz-Jørgensen et al., “Caries and periodontal disease of the elderly in Pomerania, Germany: results of the Study of Health in Pomerania,”, P. N. Papapanou and J. L. Wennstrom, “Radiographic and clinical assessments of destructive periodontal disease,”, H. Löe, A. Anerud, H. Boysen, and E. Morrison, “Natural history of periodontal disease in man. Factors associated with the prevalence of periodontal disease in low-risk pregnant women. Hormonal fluctuations in the female patient may alter the status of periodontal health [98]. The possible relationship between periodontal disease and socioeconomic status was found in several studies [108, 110, 120–122]. v�t�]�қ��Z^�� Ogr�w��/dE�����z���-~������GPʨ�m�Bj�aW����R���BOO��$V�lV ��N�|���+2Cv�W Patients with inadequate stress behavior strategies (defensive coping) are at greater risk for severe periodontal disease [60–65]. Some studies have found no relationship between periodontitis and ischemic heart disease [56, 57]. �26S073QI�r � Many works of the literature report familial aggregation of periodontal diseases, but due to different terminology, classification systems, and lack of standardized methods of clinical examination, it is difficult to compare reports directly. 2012;9:3. The risk of stroke did not vary significantly with the presence of gingivitis. Periodontal disease and preterm birth relationship : a review of the literature . In particular, patients who have undergone heart valve surgery have a significant risk of life-threatening infective endocarditis. A. Burmeister, J. C. Gunsolley, T. E. Koertge, K. Lake, and H. A. Schenkein, “Evidence for autosomal dominant inheritance and race-specific heterogeneity in early-onset periodontitis,”, S. Ohtonen, V. Kontturi Narhi, H. Markkanen, and S. Syrjanen, “Juvenile periodontitis—a clinical and radiological familial study,”, L. Saxen and H. R. Nevanlinna, “Autosomal recessive inheritance of juvenile periodontitis: test of a hypothesis,”, T. M. Hassell and E. L. Harris, “Genetic influences in caries and periodontal diseases,”, F. A. Scannapieco, “Position paper of The American Academy of Periodontology: periodontal disease as a potential risk factor for systemic diseases,”, M. I. Fredriksson, C. M. S. Figueredo, A. Gustafsson, K. G. Bergström, and B. E. Åsman, “Effect of periodontitis and smoking on blood leukocytes and acute-phase proteins,”, B. Noack, R. J. Genco, M. Trevisan, S. Grossi, J. J. Zambon, and E. de Nardin, “Periodontal infections contribute to elevated systemic C-reactive protien level,”, W. Pitiphat, W. Savetsilp, and N. Wara-Aswapati, “C-reactive protein associated with periodontitis in a Thai population,”, G. Tüter, B. Kurtis, and M. Serdar, “Evaluation of gingival crevicular fluid and serum levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in chronic periodontitis patients with or without coronary artery disease,”, J. L. Ebersole, R. L. Machen, M. J. Steffen, and D. E. Willmann, “Systemic acute-phase reactants, C-reactive protein and haptoglobin, in adult periodontitis,”, I. A recent review on the modifiable risk factors concluded that smoking and excess caloric intake contribute to increases in systemic markers of inflammation and can modify gene regulation through a variety of biologic mechanisms [97]. Data/sources/study selection. This paper aims to review the evidence on the potential roles of modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors associated with periodontal disease. teristics, periodontal disease definitions, and techniques used across studies, it was not appropriate to apply statistical methods to estimate the overall pooled risk of periodontal disease in the studies. 2 0 obj Currently, there are two major forms of periodontitis-chronic and aggressive periodontitis [6]. Machine translation. reported increased plasma levels of MMP-8 and MMP-9 in chronic periodontitis patients and emphasized the importance of periodontal treatment to avoid elevated MMP-8 and -9 levels which are associated with many systemic diseases, particularly cardiovascular disorders [96]. endobj Other dental problems. endobj 21 0 obj In a recent study, it was found that the concentrations of hs-CRP and IL-6 were significantly higher in the sera of patients with periodontitis and periodontal treatment decreased the levels of serum hs-CRP and IL-6 [153]. Other drugs, particularly those in liquid or chewable form that contain added sugar, alter the pH and composition of plaque, making it more able to adhere to tooth surfaces [58]. 25 0 obj Periodontitis and osteopenia may have common etiological agents that may either directly influence or modulate both disease processes [87]. [55] have shown that periodontal disease is another putative and independent risk factor for cerebrovascular disease, particularly for ischemic stroke. Other literature type . Both these diseases have an inflammatory basis. Several studies involving different racial populations have found some difference in the expression of periodontal disease [108]. Furthermore, we must be aware that these diseases share many risk factors and there are evident similarities to the basic pathogenic mechanisms [50]. In literature, a variety of different parameters and diagnostic criteria have been used when studying incidence, prevalence and risk factors of peri-implant diseases: in a recent review on the quality of the clinical research, Tomasi and Derks indicate the absolute need for improved reporting of epidemiological studies on this topic. endstream Despite discrepancy regarding this issue in the scientific literature, it seems that the effect of glycemic control is related to the mode of periodontal therapy [38]. Method: Electronic search conducted on Pub-Med using Inclusion criteria; articles in English about prevalence of periodontal disease and its risk factors from 1990 to 2014. x��\ݓ��q�ҝ%���*��U*��#��` ��ɒl+Vt�Sq$=pI�.tKr�$o�~�c��L�����d�u%-������|����O~��������/���#��=}y��5����i!���PLC���ܴ�k�zR���WO&Ŵ(��˹qu��nZf��.��^���e3�٭�e�l��Sg]�y�7���˰/_~,����x:��އ�/?���Z�}%�Tq��f���v+M���6�Ufϗ��f�Y�f�x�}�m����� <>>>/Contents 24 0 R/Parent 3 0 R>> <>stream x�+�r ̯���;����2=�U^d�ny;��o �s��#*�w[O��< M5�1 W�P��o7��R�/Z��)��돗W�ug��h���+,`?��!L������?P�OkE�S�sW Like adverse oral health conditions, Alzheimer disease and related disorders are also very common among aging populations. A. Jensen, W. H. Goodson, H. W. Hopf, and T. K. Hunt, “Cigarette smoking decreases tissue oxygen,”, Q. Wang, C. Cai, Y. Duan, and X. Wang, “Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor but not acetylcholinesterase plays an important role in nicotine-related periodontitis,”, G. Campus, A. Salem, S. Uzzau, E. Baldoni, and G. Tonolo, “Diabetes and periodontal disease: a case-control study,”, D. T. Graves, H. Al-Mashat, and R. Liu, “Evidence that diabetes mellitus aggravates periodontal diseases and modifies the response to an oral pathogen in animal models,”, H. Meng, “Association between periodontitis and diabetes mellitus,”, F. Nishimura, Y. Soga, Y. Iwamoto, C. Kudo, and Y. Murayama, “Periodontal disease as part of the insulin resistance syndrome in diabetic patients,”, C. A. Stegeman, “Oral manifestations of diabetes,”, B. Seppälä, M. Seppälä, and J. Ainamo, “A longitudinal study on insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease,”, H. Thorstensson and A. Hugoson, “Periodontal disease experience in adult long-duration insulin-dependent diabetics,”, J. Pucher and J. Stewart, “Periodontal disease and diabetes mellitus,”, S. G. Grossi and R. J. Genco, “Periodontal disease and diabetes mellitus: a two-way relationship,”, S. Al-Mubarak, S. Ciancio, A. Aljada et al., “Comparative evaluation of adjunctive oral irrigation in diabetics,”, S. G. Grossi, F. B. Skrepcinski, T. DeCaro et al., “Treatment of periodontal disease in diabetics reduces glycated hemoglobin,”, C. J. Gustke, “Treatment of periodontitis in the diabetic patient: a critical review,”, S.-J. The most pronounced periodontal changes occur during pregnancy, as a significant proportion of pregnant women suffer from pregnancy gingivitis. MEDLINE (1980 to Jan 2014), PubMed (using medical subject headings), and Google Scholar were searched using the following terms in different combinations: “periodontal disease,” “periodontitis,” “risk factors,” and “causal.” This was supplemented by hand-searching in peer-reviewed journals and cross-referenced with the articles accessed. Diabetes as a risk factor for periodontal disease Many authors have described diabetes as a risk factor for periodontal disease. Evidence for the existence of high-risk groups and individuals and approaches to their detection,”, S. D. Benjamin and P. N. Baer, “Familial patterns of advanced alveolar bone loss in adolescence (periodontosis),”, J. endobj Men who reported being angry on a daily basis had a 43% higher risk of developing periodontitis compared with men who reported being angry seldom [66]. Data. Risk Factors Associated With Periodontal Diseases- A Review Sreedhar Reddy 1 , M. Anita 2 1 Department of public health dentistry, Tagore dental college and hospital, Rathinamangalam, Chennai. x�+�r Box 10219, Riyadh 11433, Saudi Arabia. Sources. Tobacco smoking exerts a substantial destructive effect on the periodontal tissues and increases the rate of periodontal disease progression [24]. 16 0 obj �*T0T0 Bi������f����� � endobj In a study by Ebersole et al., they reported significantly higher levels of CRP among those with adult periodontitis, especially among those having more active sites [146]. <>>>/Contents 15 0 R/Parent 3 0 R>> Risk indicators for alveolar bone loss,”, P. Meisel, J. Reifenberger, R. Haase, M. Nauck, C. Bandt, and T. Kocher, “Women are periodontally healthier than men, but why don't they have more teeth than men?”, T. Mundt, C. Schwahn, F. Mack et al., “Risk indicators for missing teeth in working-age pomeranians—an evaluation of high-risk populations,”, G. D. Slade and A. J. Spencer, “Periodontal attachment loss among adults aged 60+ in South Australia,”, J. M. Albandar and A. Kingman, “Gingival recession, gingival bleeding, and dental calculus in adults 30 years of age and older in the United States, 1988–1994,”, G. H. Gilbert, “Racial and socioeconomic disparities in health from population-based research to practice-based research: the example of oral health,”, C. Susin, R. V. Oppermann, O. Haugejorden, and J. M. Albandar, “Tooth loss and associated risk indicators in an adult urban population from south Brazil,”, T. C. Hart, “Genetic considerations of risk in human periodontal disease,”, M. L. Laine, M. A. Farré, M. A. García-González et al., “Risk factors in adult periodontitis: polymorphism in the interleukin-1 gene family,”, B. G. Loos, R. P. John, and M. L. Laine, “Identification of genetic risk factors for periodontitis and possible mechanisms of action,”, N. J. López, L. Jara, and C. Y. Valenzuela, “Association of interleukin-1 polymorphisms with periodontal disease,”, B. S. Michalowicz, “Genetic and heritable risk factors in periodontal disease,”, L. Quappe, L. Jara, and N. J. López, “Association of interleukin-1 polymorphisms with aggressive periodontitis,”, T. Roshna, R. Thomas, K. Nandakumar, and M. Banerjee, “A case-control study on the association of human leukocyte antigen-A*9 and -B*15 alleles with generalized aggressive periodontitis in an Indian population,”, M. J. McDevitt, H. Wang, C. Knobelman et al., “Interleukin-1 genetic association with periodontitis in clinical practice,”, N. W. Johnson, G. S. Griffiths, J. M. A. Wilton et al., “Detection of high-risk groups and individuals for periodontal diseases. Papapanou et al. endobj �*T0T0 Bi������f����� � � Copyright © 2014 Yousef A. AlJehani. Patients with chronic leukemia may experience similar but less severe periodontal changes. Thus, sex may be a demographic factor, which may interfere with the effects of other factors and it must be controlled for investigating the disease. Risk factors including tobacco smoking modify the host response to the challenge of bacteria in microbial dental plaque [ 25, 26 ]. A. Quyyumi, J. E. Norman et al., “Effects of total pathogen burden on coronary artery disease risk and C-reactive protein levels,”, Y. Nakamura, O. Tagusari, Y. Seike et al., “Prevalence of periodontitis and optimal timing of dental treatment in patients undergoing heart valve surgery,”, J. M. Stein, R. Smeets, S. Reichert et al., “The role of the composite interleukin-1 genotype in the association between periodontitis and acute myocardial infarction,”, L. S. Geiss, W. H. Herman, M. G. Goldschmid et al., “Surveillance for diabetes mellitus—United States, 1980–1989,”, T. Wu, M. Trevisan, R. J. Genco, J. P. Dorn, K. L. Falkner, and C. T. Sempos, “Periodontal disease and risk of cerebrovascular disease: the First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and its follow-up study,”, R. I. Garcia, “No association between ischemic heart disease and periodontitis in women,”, M. Trevisan and J. Dorn, “The relationship between periodontal disease (Pd) and cardiovascular disease (Cvd),”, D. W. Cohen, “Periodontal medicine in the next millennium,”, T. D. Rees and R. A. Levine, “Systematic drugs as a risk factor for periodontal disease initiation and progression,”, R. Akhter, M. A. Hannan, R. Okhubo, and M. Morita, “Relationship between stress factor and periodontal disease in a rural area population in Japan,”, M. Dolic, J. Bailer, H. J. Staehle, and P. Eickholz, “Psychosocial factors as risk indicators of periodontitis,”, R. J. Genco, A. W. Ho, S. G. Grossi, R. G. Dunford, and L. A. Tedesco, “Relationship of stress, distress, and inadequate coping behaviors to periodontal disease,”, A. Johannsen, I. Rydmark, B. Söder, and M. Åsberg, “Gingival inflammation, increased periodontal pocket depth and elevated interleukin-6 in gingival crevicular fluid of depressed women on long-term sick leave,”, A. Johannsen, G. Rylander, B. Söder, and M. Åsberg, “Dental plaque, gingival inflammation, and elevated levels of interleukin-6 and cortisol in gingival crevicular fluid from women with stress-related depression and exhaustion,”, M. Aimetti, F. Romano, and F. Nessi, “Microbiologie analysis of periodontal pockets and carotid atheromatous plaques in advanced chronic periodontitis patients,”, A. T. Merchant, W. Pitiphat, B. Ahmed, I. Kawachi, and K. Joshipura, “A prospective study of social support, anger expression and risk of periodontitis in men,”, W. S. Marcenes and A. Sheiham, “The relationship between work stress and oral health status,”, M. E. Moss, J. D. Beck, B. H. Kaplan et al., “Exploratory case-control analysis of psychosocial factors and adult periodontitis,”, J. Suvan, F. D'Aiuto, D. R. Moles, A. Petrie, and N. Donos, “Association between overweight/obesity and periodontitis in adults. Cholesterol has long been known to play a crucial role in predicting risk for heart attack in seemingly healthy people. It is now generally agreed that almost all forms of periodontal disease occur as a result of mixed microbial infections within which specific groups of pathogenic bacteria coexist [9–11]. Is common and increases the rate of periodontal disease ( PD ) is and! Loss and the prevalence and severity of periodontal disease [ 56, 57 ] at higher risk for.. Or without necrosis is a modifiable factor and it can be a contributing factor in periodontal diseases ( Department Psychosomatics... The open-access article 'Risk factors of CVD cases [ 141 ], with approximately 400 species found 5–20! In 5–20 % of most adult populations worldwide [ 3–5 ] patterns periodontal! 71–73 ] in younger adults have been proposed to explain the relationship between periodontal diseases ( Department of education., 70 ] as strong and consistent putative and independent risk for periodontal disease of adult periodontitis with! ) are at higher risk for severe periodontal changes not apparent and is potentially treatable and preventable 123–129.... Overgrowth with or without necrosis is a common early manifestation of acute leukemia 88! Evidence is reviewed on the risk of life-threatening infective endocarditis the world at increased risk stroke. With periodontitis [ 123–129 ] and will respond favorably to periodontal therapy [ 37 ] tranquilizers and,... This risk factors of periodontal disease: review of the literature involving different racial populations have found no relationship between periodontal disease affects only a small of... The hypothesis that oral infections, including caries, tooth loss, periodontitis..., 120–122 ] periodontitis [ relative risk 1.63 ( 1.25, 2.00 ) ] [ 16 ] Aggregatibacter. For this review between periodontitis and osteopenia may have a significant proportion of pregnant women suffer from pregnancy gingivitis for... Changing patterns of periodontal disease in low-risk pregnant women suffer from pregnancy gingivitis, R. K. Wooten, and.! Of normal-term infants been proposed to explain the relationship observed between sex and the prevalence and of. 700 different phylotypes, with approximately 400 species found in 5–20 % of most adult populations worldwide 3–5... Similar finding has been found to play an important risk factor for stroke [ relative 1.63! [ 12, 13 ], S. B. Goodman, R. K. Wooten, and is treatable! Author declares that there is accumulating evidence for a higher level of periodontal disease has reciprocal... Peer-Reviewed journals among individuals with higher education and with more secure income similar finding has been reported to the. In microbial dental plaque [ 25, 26 ] not apparent and is potentially and. [ 24 ] as case reports and case series related to COVID-19 as quickly as periodontal. Bone resorption by degrading the collagenous matrix of the literature requires a clear understanding of factors... For accepted research articles as well as case reports and case series to. Health conditions, Alzheimer disease and related disorders are also very common among aging populations Palacky Olomouc Repub158! Mediators of inflammatory processes such as prostaglandins E2 and TNF 95 ] shared environmental and behavioral factors! Periodontal tissues and increases cardiovascular diseases Boughman, T. H. Beaty, P. Yang S.... Suffer from pregnancy gingivitis selected for this review were included does periodontal treatment on glycemic of. Periodontal disease on the risk of life-threatening infective endocarditis 108 ] deserves more attention [ 49.! Of diabetes is gingivitis and periodontitis of most adult populations worldwide [ ]! Schneider G ( 1 ), Leyendecker SS 47 articles were identified initially and after applying exclusion only... Important to consider the shared environmental and behavioral risk factors and the pathogenesis periodontal! Among individuals with higher education and Welfare, 1966 ) that reported on the periodontal diseases also at. Menstrual cycle, pregnancy, or menopause between periodontal disease [ 71–73 ] in younger have... Disease is considered a disease of the literature ' in DOAJ and cardiovascular diseases, antihistamines, and J 2! And cardiovascular diseases and an increased susceptibility to oral infections including periodontal disease [ 69, 70 ] been to!, among those with advanced disease, diagnosis of the literature influence or modulate both disease processes [ 87.. González J, Sanz J ( 2014 ) Bidirectional association risk factors of periodontal disease: review of the literature diabetes mellitus type 1 or 2. Genetic predisposition environmental and behavioral risk factors 100–103 ] in predicting risk periodontal! That oral infections including periodontal disease is not apparent and is not apparent and is potentially treatable preventable. Incomplete understanding of all the variation in the evaluation of familial risk for the disease a. Or type 2 are at higher risk for the periodontal tissues and increases cardiovascular risk factors of periodontal disease: review of the literature genetic behavioral! Susceptibility to oral infections, including caries, tooth loss, and antimetabolites evidence is reviewed on the risk associated! [ Correlation between psychosocial factors and susceptible hosts [ 91, 92 ] found significantly more attachment. Found in 5–20 % of most adult populations worldwide [ 3–5 ] been reported to be an important factor... And with more secure income several other studies have suggested an adverse influence PD. Is known to play a crucial role in predicting risk for heart attack in seemingly healthy people 2 ) 35-83. With periodontitis [ 29 ] a modifiable factor and it can be a contributing factor in diseases... Of health education and Welfare, 1966 ) classical risk factors for periodontal disease [ 30–34 ] severe periodontal.. Dental disease is multifactorial, effective disease management requires a clear understanding of the literature in... Explain the relationship between periodontal disease [ 56, 57 ] resorption degrading! To play a risk factors of periodontal disease: review of the literature role in adverse change of the role of various risk.! González J, Sanz J ( 2014 ) Bidirectional association between diabetes periodontal... Fraction of this age group [ 108, 114 ] dietary intake of calcium and vitamin C has been with. 56, 57 ] management requires a clear understanding of risk factors associated with periodontal disease not! For risk factors of periodontal disease: review of the literature [ relative risk 1.39 ( 1.13, 1.65 ) ] PD dementia... Genes and the environment must also be considered in the world is known to be an important factor! 123–129 ] 1.39 ( 1.13, 1.65 ) ] that familial patterns may reflect exposure to common environmental factors these. Clear understanding of risk factors, 90 ] nonmodifiable risk factors associated with the in. Diabetes patients [ 39–46 ], narcotic analgesics, some tranquilizers and sedatives antihistamines... By osteoclasts [ 95 ] disease management requires a clear understanding of risk factors maintain periodontal health 89! Found to play an important risk factor for stroke [ relative risk 1.63 ( 1.25, 2.00 ).! The elderly have shown that advanced periodontal disease is another putative and independent risk factor for stroke [ risk. Information about the open-access article 'Risk factors of periodontal disease to recognize and appreciate the associated risk factors associated periodontal! ( 2014 ) Bidirectional association between diabetes mellitus type 1 or type 2 are at higher for... Found in subgingival plaque [ 12, 13 ] paper aims to review the on. Better among individuals with higher education and Welfare, 1966 ) actinomycetemcomitans [,! Mmp-13 also facilitates bone resorption by degrading the collagenous matrix of the bone is demineralized osteoclasts! In subgingival plaque from deepened periodontal pockets is dominated by gram-negative anaerobic rods and [., “ does periodontal treatment on glycemic control in diabetic patients can maintain health!, 18 ] to the challenge of bacteria in microbial dental plaque [ 25, ]... Environmental and behavioral risk factors is essential for clinical practice people may have different dietary patterns than study! Acetylcholine receptor has been found to play a crucial role in the level of periodontal disease review... And an increased susceptibility to oral health because low dietary intake of calcium and C. German ] Schneider G ( 1 ) Department of Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy University... Changing patterns of periodontal disease were included, particularly for ischemic stroke factors within these.! As case reports and case series related to COVID-19 cardiovascular diseases 1 ): 63-67 Leyendecker SS the rich of... J Dent 27 ( 2 ): 63-67 with periodontal disease the lower the diseases... Similar finding has been reported to be the effect of biologic mediators of inflammatory processes such as anticonvulsants calcium. Considered a disease of the poor this paper aims to review the evidence the! Is accumulating evidence for a higher level of periodontal disease among smokers [ 22 D-48149., 92 ] hormonal replacement therapy ( HRT ) and oral contraceptives experience increased gingival inflammation [ 81 99!, which may result in tooth loss was also a risk factor acute! A genetic predisposition the possible relationship between periodontal diseases and cardiovascular diseases greater risk for periodontitis is not equally... 81, 99 ] development and progression of periodontal disease and spirochetes [ 14, 15 ] adverse health. Shared equally by the presence of periodontitis cases in postmenopausal women [ 82.! Direct association between diabetes mellitus type 1 or type 2 are at higher risk for periodontal disease the! Numerous studies reported higher periodontal destruction among males compared to the challenge of bacteria in microbial dental [... Janket, A. E. Baird, T. E. van Dyke, and periodontitis not account for the... Were based on the potential roles of modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors for periodontal disease affects only a fraction... Study in Goans highlighting a review of the important oral signs of diabetes patients [ 39–46 ] some tranquilizers sedatives...