Polybius outlines three clear causes of the Second Punic war. Still, a lot was happening in the Carthage backyard, i.e. Although Rome’s actions were not directly offensive, they set up a path for Carthaginians with very few options. The Start of the Second Punic War 218 BC. The personality of Hannibal, his genius, and his hatred of the Romans was crucial in the outbreak of the war. Image Credit: ancient-battles Second Punic Warwas also marked by the happenings of Gallic uprisings that made this war a much more complicated affair for the Romans. Carthage was in a difficult situation after the defeat of the First Punic War. thatsbloodyy thatsbloodyy 2 hours ago History High School What was the cause of the second punic war? The rising power of the Barcid family in Spain upset the balance of power between Carthage and Rome and this destabilized the peace that was agreed at the end of the First Punic War. The Second Punic War: Causes. He was accompanied by his Hannibal who was only nine years old. This is the second and most important cause of the Second Punic War. Among the three Punic Wars, the second war can be termed as the bloodiest with maximum number of battles. His father Hamilcar, had valiantly fought the Romans in Sicily and was widely regarded as a great commander. Macedonia, Syracuse and several Numidiankingdoms were drawn into the f… The Celts with the support of the Carthaginians planned to move south into Roman territory. New Carthage. "The origin of the second Punic War." [18] This was not typical of all or many in the Carthaginian elite. The success of Hamilcar and his family in Spain, which rebuilt Carthaginian finances and created a standing army, giving Carthage the means to resist Rome. Rome eventually built a fleet, and after initial defeats, they conquered and smashed the Punic navy and won a total victory. Both sides prepare for war Rome wants to use superior navy to attack Carthage homeland. It will be argued that the causes of the Second Punic War were Carthage’s intrigues with the Celts, Hannibal’s rivalry with Rome in Spain, and the great Carthaginian’s general thirst for revenge on Rome. Hannibal destroys the Roman army at Cannae in the most severe defeat ever suffered by Rome. Hannibal could use his massive wealth from his Iberian conquests to bribe many Carthaginians politicians to support his anti-Roman policies. However, despite the elite Carthaginians' opposition to the war, under the leadership of Hanno the Great, they were unable to restrain Hannibal.[15]. What was the cause of the second punic war? The main reasons for the Second or Hannibalic War were the ambition and pride of prominent military generals and a poorly configured political agreement. The interval between the First and Second Punic Wars (241–218 bce) The loss of naval supremacy not only deprived the Carthaginians of their predominance in the western Mediterranean but exposed their overseas empire to disintegration under renewed attacks by Rome. Bibliography Primary Sources Secondary Sources The Third Punic War was entirely avoidable was caused by Rome taking advantage of Carthage while they were weak. Bit by bit the 2nd Punic war became a world war. Until the decisive moment arrived, the outcome of the war hung in the balance throughout a number of battles. Rome thought it would be easy to defeat Hannibal, but Hannibal was full of surprises, including his manner of entering the Italic peninsula from Spain. Most of the leadership in Cartha… However, the Romans became aware of the plan and they launched a preemptive strike. The Second Pinic War: The Causes Of The Second Punic War 938 Words | 4 Pages. The war on Saguntum was seen by Polybius to be just the first incident in the war. One of the key reasons for the outbreak of the Second Punic War was the inability of Carthage to restrain Hannibal, who had become too powerful. Scipio Africanus Conquers Spain 206 BC. This was originally a Greek city but later was composed of a mixed population of Greeks, Romans, and Iberians. The war lasted for a whole 17 years … rome. It was a ferocious struggle and it could have led to the destruction of Rome and this could have changed the course of World History. Carthage was asked to totally evacuate Sicily and the Aegadian Islands, which lay west of it, as well as the small islands that lay between Sicily and Africa. After many years’ of fighting, there was a stalemate, Rome knew that it could only defeat the Carthaginians by ending their supremacy at sea. The outcome of these wars determined the nation to dominate the Mediterranean for years to come, and the largest of the wars was the Second Punic War. Polybius is someone who gives a very good account of the events that led to the war, blaming the Carthaginians for causing the war. He wanted to restore the Carthaginian Empire and to make it strong again so that it could defend itself against Roman aggression. This raises a very large question on the part of Polybius. Scipio defeated the remaining Carthaginian forces in Spain, which placed Spain under Roman control. It also placed restrictions on the size of the Punic navy and demanded reparations. Polybius gives us three events that led to the Second Punic War, and none of these events actually involved Hannibal himself. Rome did not want to just go in and defeat a nation they had just defeated. The fault for the beginning of the Second Punic War can not be placed on a single nation. [5] They were based in the Po Valley and had a formidable army and they had once even sacked Rome. o Saguntum had a long standing friendship with Rome Rome demands that he leave. After a while, the Carthaginians got their house in order and sought to expand their empire again. Indeed, the Barcid led the city-state into a war that they did not want. Carthage had lost the First Punic War (264-241 BCE) and control of Sicily, then again it had been defeated in the Second Punic War (218-201 BCE) and so lost its Spanish empire, its fleet, and independence of military action. The war began just twenty-three short years after the First Punic War had ended. That said, the treaties, while a major reason for the Second Punic War, were not the only cause. (London: Routledge, 2003), p 45, Rich, John. However, he continues to explain the reasons for Hannibal’s rage, the First Punic War, which Polybius calls “the most important cause of the subsequent war” (Kagan106, 1975). Rome demanded that Carthage hand over child hostages and demanded all of Carthage's technology. Write the following events onto cards, and sort them in chronologcal order, adding a date where possible: Hannibal besieges Saguntum. Following their defeat in the First Punic War and the loss of territory in Sicily, Carthage built up a new empire in Spain. Second Punic War - Second Punic War Battles. The Third Punic War was entirely avoidable was caused by Rome taking advantage of Carthage while they were weak. Both nations took decisive actions that forced them towards the war. The main reasons for the Second or Hannibalic War were the ambition and pride of prominent military generals and a poorly configured political agreement. However, there was a faction in Carthage that was determined to renew the war with Spain. The Second Punic War: Causes. He continued the strategy of Hamilcar and continued to expand the Punic presence in Iberia [3]. Some historians of the Hannibalian war, when they wish. The Romans helped, … "[19] Hannibal was bound by this oath and he never wavered from it and he became the Republic’s greatest enemy. The Senate or Assembly was controlled by a party that wanted peaceful co-existence with Rome and distrusted Hannibal. This raises a very large question on the part of Polybius. 218 when Hannibal took control of the Greek city and Roman ally Saguntum (in Spain). The Second Punic War §6: War in Spain §7: Debate about Scipio's invasion of Africa §8: Scipio's bodyguard §9: Carthaginian countermeasures §10: Hasdrubal, Syphax, Massinissa, and Sophonisba §11: Massinissa prepares for war §12: Massinissa's war against Syphax and Carthage. The Hannibal inspired attempts by the Carthaginians to engineer a Celtic or a Celtic-Carthaginian invasion placed Rome on a war-footing. They contested the control of Sicily with the Greeks. Rome didn’t like powerful neighbors, and they wanted total control over the Mediterranean. Their city had suffered too much in the war and in its aftermath during the ‘Mercenary War’ and there was a strong pro-peace party in the city. The causes of the First Punic War were mainly clashes of economic interests. . Click on picture to enlarge . rome's ability to adapt to war and their numbers. This war was fought under the command of Hannibal who fought for Carthage while Romans fought under various generals. https://dailyhistory.org/index.php?title=What_were_the_causes_of_the_Second_Punic_War&oldid=20475. While the First Punic War had been fought largely over control of Sicily, the Second Punic War involved confrontations in Spain, Italy, Sicily, Sardinia, and North Africa. The cause of the Second Punic War is an issue of some great debate. The Second Punic War : The Causes Of The Second Pinic War 1043 Words | 5 Pages. The second Punic war was the result of the growing rivalry between the two great powers that were now struggling for supremacy in the western Mediterranean (Rome and Carthage), with the trigger of the war being the rapid growth of the Carthaginian dominion in Spain, with Carthage building up a great empire in the Spanish peninsula, expecting to raise new armies to invade Italy. When the inhabitants rejected the offer Hannibal had every adult put to death and enslaved the children. See answer hillaryanaiah hillaryanaiah Answer: The causes of the war were a result of both Roman and Carthaginian actions. Task. His account of the Punic Wars is fortunately among these better preserved parts. The Second Punic War broke out in B.C. 73 (1): 1–23, How did the Bubonic Plague make the Italian Renaissance possible, Top 10 Books on the origins of the Italian Renaissance. The Second Punic War or the Hannibalic War lasted sixteen years from 218 BC to 202 BC and was fought between the two major powers of Rome and Carthage. The immediate cause of the Second Punic War was the decision by Hannibal — the main Carthaginian general at the time, and one of history’s most revered military commanders — to ignore the treaty between Carthage and Rome that “forbade” Carthage from expanding in … Below is a discussion of the origins of the second great war between Carthage and Rome. This allowed Hannibal to consolidate his position in Spain. Garland, Robert. While Hannibal was technically loyal to Carthage, he often acted as an independent sovereign in Iberia. Even though the main cause of the second war was the war on Saguntum you must go back all the way to the ending of the First War. Rome was technically an ally of Saguntum, but the Republic was not able to help it. As stated, Roman Imperialism was … The Barcid was the main driver of the conflict between Carthage and Rome. Hannibal stated that he was "willing to depart from Saguntum, unarmed, each with two garments."[10]. Carthage was in a difficult situation after the defeat of the First Punic War. The Romans demanded that the Carthaginians evacuate Sicily. The Second Punic War is known as Hannibal’s War or against Hannibal. There was no clear victor and the terms set by the Romans were extremely harsh. Second Punic War Effect He was determined like his family to defeat Rome and it became an obsession. Although Rome’s actions were not directly offensive, they set up a path for Carthaginians with very few options. generals of the second punic war. The war between Hannibal and Rome was one of the most decisive in history. revenge. hannibal and scipio. Many saw the siege and the destruction of the city as an unofficial declaration of war. The treaty that Rome made with Carthage was complicated, and had numerous political results. The Second Punic War-In 226, the Romans pledged to not interfere with anything south of the Ebro River, but after the first punic war, a city named Saguntum, south of the Ebro River, … Explain the causes of the Second Punic War a. Sardinia, 237bc. The primary purpose of the dissertation is to examine the causes of the Second Punic War as given by two prominent ancient historians, Polybius and Livy, the key sources for the modern reader studying the conflict. Get the answers you need, now! The Second Pinic War: The Causes Of The Second Punic War 938 Words | 4 Pages. Hamilcar was a brilliant leader and strategist and he soon began to conquer extensive territories in Spain. [12] Hannibal also obtained war-elephants. The Carthaginians did not control him in Iberia. From his earliest childhood, he was raised by his father to hate Rome and to seek his destruction. Like the American’s Manifest Destiny in the 1800’s, Rome wanted to unite the world in its civilization, which they believed was the most culture-rich of all the nations. o CAUSES OF THE SECOND PUNIC WAR EVENTS DURING THE SECOND PUNIC WAR Carthaginian General, Hannibal, lays siege to city of Saguntum. The North Africans had a small foothold in Spain and Hamilcar organized an expedition to the area. Rome forced Carthage to pay for damages after the war, so Carthage had very little left to pay the mercenaries. To set the scene, the First and Second Punic Wars, as well as the period between the wars, are discussed. Furthermore, the wealth of the city tempted him as he needed to pay his men who were all mercenaries. In order to determine who is truthfully to blame for the Second Punic War, each of the causes by both sides must be explored in depth. Nevertheless, Carthage recovered from the Second Punic War relatively quickly and coins and trade goods from this period have be… Both nations took decisive actions that forced them towards the war. Their defeat in the First Punic War saw Carthage stripped of most of its empire, apart from its North Africa territories and an enclave in Spain.[2]. The Second Punic War (218–201 BC) was the second of three wars fought between Carthage and Rome, the two main powers of the western Mediterranean in the 3rd century BC. American Journal of Philology. The Mercenary War & The Second Punic War . Hannibal crosses the Ebro. why did rome win the second punic war. The government of Carthage was divided over their support for Hannibal in Spain and they were not really in favor of another war with Rome. Roman envoys go to Carthage and declare war. They were supported by the Barcids in Spain. The cause of Second Punic War Bust of Hannibal discovered in Capua. Hannibal was determined to avenge the death and defeat of his people in the First Punic War. He was even able to drag it into another war with Rome despite opposition from Carthaginian citizens. The cause of the Second Punic War is an issue of some great debate. The cause of the Second Punic War is an issue of some great debate. During the Punic War era, the extent of Roman Imperialism was founded on the basis of making the world as one. The origins of the Second Punic War, which was very much Hannibal’s war, were the following. The Punic Wars were clashes between titans and were arguably the largest wars of the time period as the two participants were some of the most powerful nations of the time. During Hannibal's assault on Saguntum he suffered heavy losses as he attempted to storm the city’s fortifications and because of the ferocity of the defending Saguntines [9]. That's the most honest answer I can give. 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