Of particular interest is the case of oxygen in aqueous potassium hydroxide solutions. – P. 128-129 • Nekrasov B.V. Osnovy obschey himii. Its dissolution in water is strongly exothermic. Preshave products and some shave creams contain potassium hydroxide to force open the hair cuticle and to act as a hygroscopic agent to attract and force water into the hair shaft, causing further damage to the hair. 0.05% Na) EMSURE® ACS,Reag. Serged and bound seams are degraded by some hazardous liquid chemicals, such as strong acids, and should not be worn when these chemicals are present. The saponification of fats with KOH is used to prepare the corresponding "potassium soaps", which are softer than the more common sodium hydroxide-derived soaps. Concentrated aqueous solutions are sometimes called potassium lyes. In the case of methanol the potassium methoxide (methylate) forms: 58 / Monday, March 26, 2012 / Rules and Regulations Date of issue: 10/09/2004 Revision date: 02/06/2018 Supersedes: 02/06/2018 Version: 1.1 02/06/2018 EN (English US) Page 1 SECTION 1: Identification 1.1. It is non-combustible but highly corrosive. Soluble in ethanol. The substances are listed in alphabetical order. Being a strong base, potassiu… - T.2. Spravochnik. The high solubility of potassium phosphate is desirable in fertilizers. Shop a large selection of Potassium Hydroxide products and learn more about Potassium Hydroxide Aqueous Solution, 40% (w/v), Ricca Chemical . Properties and structure; Structure; Thermal stability; Reactions; Basicity, solubility and desiccating properties; As a nucleophile in organic chemistry A 3–5% aqueous solution of KOH is applied to the flesh of a mushroom and the researcher notes whether or not the color of the flesh changes. KOH is also used for semiconductor chip fabrication. Similar in characteristics to sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide is used in similar industries, however in different applications, mainly due to the cost and solubility. Solubility Information: Miscible with water and ethanol. The gaseous species is dimeric. – P. 229 • Rabinovich V.A., Havin Z.Ya. [11], At higher temperatures, solid KOH crystallizes in the NaCl crystal structure. It is widely used in the manufacture of detergents, fertilizer, rayon, paper, dyestuffs, various drugs, drug intermediates, fine chemicals, and petroleum products. The potassium salts of carbonate, cyanide, permanganate, phosphate, and various silicates are prepared by treating either the oxides or the acids with KOH. Most commercial samples are ca. At room temperature, the  OH− groups are ordered and the environment about the K+ centers is distorted, with K+—OH− distances ranging from 2.69 to 3.15 Å, depending on the orientation of the OH group. [18] Nickel–iron batteries also use potassium hydroxide electrolyte. They participate in an acid-base equilibrium. Ph Eur - Find MSDS or SDS, a COA, data sheets and more information. The chemical formula for the compound could be written as KOH and a molecular weight is measured 56.11 g/mol. Freely soluble in water. When dissolved, these hydroxides are completely ionized. SOLUBILITY:water [H2O]: 97,6 (0°), 102,4 (10°), 112,4 (20°), 117,9 (25°), 135,3 (40°), 147,5 (60°), 162,5 (80°), 179,3 (100°), 206 (120°), 367 (140°)diethyl ether [C2H5OC2H5]: solventlessmethanol [CH3OH]: 55 (28°)ethanol [C2H5OH]: 38,7 (28°)PROPERTIES:colourless monoclinic crystalsM (molar mass): 56,110 g/molMP (melting point): 380 °CMB (boiling point): 1320 °CD (density): 2,12 (25°, g/cm3, s.)ΔHmelt (molar enthalpy of melting): 7,5 kJ/molΔHboil (molar enthalpy of boiling): 128,9 kJ/molΔH°298 (Standard molar enthalpy of reaction at 298 К): -226 (g) kJ/molΔG°298 (standard molar Gibbs energy of reaction at 298 К): -380,2 (s) kJ/molS°298 (standard molar entropy at 298 К): 238 (g) J/(mol•К)C°p (standard molar heat capacity): 49 (g) J/(mol•К)LD50 (median lethal doses for laboratory animals): 365 (rats, i/g) mg/kgLITERARY REFERENCES: • Vrednye himicheskie veschestva: Neorganicheskie soedineniya elementov I-IV grupp. Formula Weight: 56.11: Physical Form: Liquid: Density: 1.087: Vapor Pressure: 23 hPa (17mm Hg) at 20°C: Color: Colorless: Quantity: 1L: Chemical Name or Material: Potassium hydroxide: Safety and Handling P260-P264b-P271-P280-P301+P330+P331-P303+P361+P353-P304+P340-P305+P351+P338 … In food products, potassium hydroxide acts as a food thickener, pH control agent and food stabilizer. Even at high temperatures, solid KOH does not dehydrate readily. Immediately rinse with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes and seek medical attention immediately. Company Information: ASHTA Chemicals Inc. P.O. It is widely used in chemical manufacturing, cleaning compounds, and petroleum refining. The hides are soaked for several hours in a solution of KOH and water to prepare them for the unhairing stage of the tanning process. Solubility Special Grade pH Value Physical Form. number 1310-58-3 Chemical formula KOH Formula weight 56.11 Assay Not less than 85.0% of total alkali calculated as KOH DESCRIPTION White or nearly white pellets, flakes, sticks, fused masses or other forms FUNCTIONAL USES Alkali CHARACTERISTICS IDENTIFICATION Solubility (Vol. are sparingly soluble. KOH and NaOH can be used interchangeably for a number of applications, although in industry, NaOH is preferred because of its lower cost. Because of its high stability and relatively low melting point, it is often melt-cast as pellets or rods, forms that have low surface area and convenient handling properties. Inhalation . 4) Separation of the anodic and cathodic spaces in the electrolysis cell is essential for this process.[15]. Potassium hydroxide, SIDS Initial Assessment Report For SIAM 13. Potassium Hydroxide, Solid . Aqueous KOH saponifies esters: When R is a long chain, the product is called a potassium soap. Potassium hydroxide dissolves in water and fully dissociates to give a solution of potassium ions and hydroxide ions. Like sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide attracts numerous specialized applications, virtually all of which rely on its properties as a strong chemical base with its consequent ability to degrade many materials. Lower molecular-weight alcohols such as methanol, ethanol, and propanols are also excellent solvents. Potassium hydroxide solutions will very readily absorb atmospheric carbon dioxide to form potassium carbonate, and must be protected from the atmosphere. They participate in an acid-base equilibrium. Potassium hydroxide is an inorganic compound with the formula K OH, and is commonly called caustic potash.. Identified Uses: Chemical manufacturing, fertilizer, batteries, soaps . Applications. Like NaOH, KOH exhibits high thermal stability. other: According to the SIDS document for potassium hydroxide (30 January 2002), a Klimisch score of 2 was assigned since study is well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles and is acceptable for assessment Carl M Parsons, 322 Mumford Hall, 1301 W. Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL 61801. - 3ed., vol.1 - New York: D. Van Nostrand Company, 1940. This reaction is manifested by the "greasy" feel that KOH gives when touched — fats on the skin are rapidly converted to soap and glycerol. KOH reacts with carbon dioxide to give bicarbonate: Historically, KOH was made by adding potassium carbonate to a strong solution of calcium hydroxide (slaked lime) The salt metathesis reaction results in precipitation of solid calcium carbonate, leaving potassium hydroxide in solution: Filtering off the precipitated calcium carbonate and boiling down the solution gives potassium hydroxide ("calcinated or caustic potash"). [24], Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their, Basicity, solubility and desiccating properties, Römpp Chemie-Lexikon, 9th Ed. [20] Entomologists wishing to study the fine structure of insect anatomy may use a 10% aqueous solution of KOH to apply this process.[21]. – P. 851-852 • Efimov A.I. The potassium hydroxide is a popular inorganic base and other names for chemical compound are potash lye or caustic potash etc. FIRST-AID MEASURES . Potassium hydroxide acts as the precursor for most of the soft and liquid soaps, and for numerous potassium-containing chemicals. Potassium hydroxide is also soluble in alcohol (1 part in 3) and glycerol (1 part in 2.5). CAUTION: This information is based upon technical data that DuPont believes to be reliable. Potassium hydroxide is an inorganic compound with the formula KOH, and is commonly called caustic potash. Shop a large selection of General Purpose Potassium Hydroxide Solutions products and learn more about Potassium Hydroxide, in Ethanol, Certified, 0.500N ±0.005N (0.5M) - T.3. Identification Product form : Substance Substance name : Potassium Hydroxide CAS-No. It has many industrial and niche applications, most of which exploit its caustic nature and its reactivity toward acids. Move casualty to fresh air and keep at rest. 1 Author to whom reprint requests should be addressed. The dissolution of potassium hydroxide in water or alcohol is a highly exothermic (heat-producing) process.1 Lower molecular-weight alcohols such as methanol, ethanol, and propanols are also excellent solvents. About 121 g of KOH dissolve in 100 mL water at room temperature, which contrasts with 100 g/100 mL for NaOH. In chemical synthesis, the choice between the use of KOH and the use of NaOH is guided by the solubility or keeping quality of the resulting salt. [17] The nickel–metal hydride batteries in the Toyota Prius use a mixture of potassium hydroxide and sodium hydroxide. About 121 g of KOH dissolve in 100 mL water at room temperature, which contrasts with 100 g/100 mL for NaOH. Solubility. L'hydroxyde de potassium est très soluble dans l'alcool éthylique, mais insoluble dans l'éther. Thus on a molar basis, NaOH is slightly more soluble than KOH. - M.-L.: Himiya, 1965. Assuming that it is just dissolving in water, the equation will be: KOH(s) → K⁺(aq) + OH⁻(aq) Making the product have the aqueous state just makes it clear that it is dissolved in water. [10] The high solubility of potassium phosphate is desirable in fertilizers. [23], Potassium hydroxide and its solutions are severe irritants to skin and other tissue. Manufacture of soft soaps . i dr. Svoystva neorganicheskih soedineniy. Potassium hydroxide CAS 1310-58-3 pellets for analysis (max. Product Name: Caustic Potash, Caustic Potash Flake, Caustic Potash Walnut, Caustic Potash 90%, Caustic Potash Briquettes 90% . The OH group is either rapidly or randomly disordered so that the  OH− group is effectively a spherical anion of radius 1.53 Å (between Cl− and F− in size). [13]. – P. 68. To find more Potassium hydroxide information like chemical properties, structure, melting point, boiling point, density, molecular formula, molecular weight, physical properties and toxicity information. Solubility in water, diethyl ether, methanol, ethanol, . For example, in a process commonly referred to as "chemical cremation" or "resomation", potassium hydroxide hastens the decomposition of soft tissues, both animal and human, to leave behind only the bones and other hard tissues. Potassium hydroxide is often the main active ingredient in chemical "cuticle removers" used in manicure treatments. Display Name: Potassium hydroxide EC Number: 215-181-3 EC Name: Potassium hydroxide CAS Number: 1310-58-3 Molecular formula: HKO IUPAC Name: potassium hydroxide It is a white solid that is dangerously corrosive. 90% pure, the remainder being water and carbonates. (in German), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, "ChemIDplus - 1310-58-3 - KWYUFKZDYYNOTN-UHFFFAOYSA-M - Potassium hydroxide [JAN:NF] - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information", "Toyota Prius Hybrid 2010 Model Emergency Response Guide", "Compound Summary for CID 14797 - Potassium Hydroxide". This same effect is also used to weaken human hair in preparation for shaving. Others have used the … [19] It is known in the E number system as E525. Eyes . It is slightly soluble in ether. The table below provides information on the variation of solubility of different substances (mostly inorganic compounds) in water with temperature, at one atmosphere pressure.Units of solubility are given in grams per 100 millilitres of water (g/100 ml), unless shown otherwise. Because of its high affinity for water, KOH serves as a desiccant in the laboratory. In the case of methanol the potassium methoxide (methylate) forms: Bern, Switzerland, 6-9 November 2001. Thus, SiO2 is attacked by KOH to give soluble potassium silicates. It has been found that the solubility of zincate is closely related to potassium hydroxide concentration, so lower concentrations of potassium hydroxide favor lower zincate solubilities as demonstrated in Figure 1. Because of their softness and greater solubility, potassium soaps require less water to liquefy, and can thus contain more cleaning agent than liquefied sodium soaps.[16]. However, alkali metal hydroxides CsOH, KOH, and NaOH are very soluble, making them strong bases. Contents. The saponification of fats with KOH is used to prepare the corresponding "potassium soaps", which are softer than the more common sodium hydroxide-derived soaps. Most metal hydroxides are insoluble; some such as Ca (OH) 2, Mg (OH) 2, Fe (OH) 2, Al (OH) 3 etc. Thus on a molar basis, NaOH is slightly more soluble than KOH. Potassium Hydroxide Safety Data Sheet according to Federal Register / Vol. More information about Potassium hydroxide (KOH). Potassium hydroxide (45%) 1310-58-3: Liquid >480 >480 >480 >480 >480 >480 >480 >480 >480 >480 > indicates greater than. Soybean protein solubility in potassium hydroxide: an in vitro test of in vivo protein quality C. M. Parsons, C. M. Parsons 4 University of Illinois, Urbana 61801. The corrosive properties of potassium hydroxide make it a useful ingredient in agents and preparations that clean and disinfect surfaces and materials that can themselves resist corrosion by KOH.[15]. The FDA considers it (as a direct human food ingredient) as generally safe when combined with "good" manufacturing practice conditions of use. The pellets are readily dissolved in water, producing a strong exothermic reaction. 24-hour Emergency Phone: … Many potassium salts are prepared by neutralization reactions involving KOH. Chemical names Potassium hydroxide C.A.S. Parcourir une grande sélection de produits Potassium Hydroxide et pour en savoir plus sur Hydroxyde de potassium, solution 1 N dans l’eau, ACROS Organics™: Potassium Special Warnings from DuPont. Because aggressive bases like KOH damage the cuticle of the hair shaft, potassium hydroxide is used to chemically assist the removal of hair from animal hides. - L.: Himiya, 1988. KOH, like NaOH, serves as a source of  OH−, a highly nucleophilic anion that attacks polar bonds in both inorganic and organic materials. Box 858 Ashtabula, Ohio 44005 Phone: (440) 997-5221 Fax: (440) 998-0286 . potassium hydroxide Physical appearance: colorless monoclinic crystals Empirical formula (Hill's system for organic substances): HKO Structural formula as text: KOH Molar/atomic mass: 56.11 Melting point (°C): 380 Boiling point (°C): 1320 Solubility (g/100 g of solvent): liquid ammonia: 0.000028 ( … Kratkiy himicheskiy spravochnik. – P. 295 299 • Seidell A. Solubilities of inorganic and metal organic compounds. [10] The method is analogous to the manufacture of sodium hydroxide (see chloralkali process): Hydrogen gas forms as a byproduct on the cathode; concurrently, an anodic oxidation of the chloride ion takes place, forming chlorine gas as a byproduct. Potassium hydroxide is soluble in water, freely soluble in ethanol, methanol, and glycerin. In this weakened state, the hair is more easily cut by a razor blade. tration;tir.usroroxygen:Ln5Gwt.^KOHat2pCthesolubilityis approximately 1^ of the value for purewater.From the experimental measurement,calculatedvalue- cf activitycoefficients,heatsofsolu- 77, No. O 18.00 g/mol . Certain species of gilled mushrooms, boletes, polypores, and lichens[22] are identifiable based on this color-change reaction. [10], Potassium hydroxide is usually sold as translucent pellets, which become tacky in air because KOH is hygroscopic. Contents - M.: Himiya, 1973. - L.: Himiya, 1977. Consequently, KOH typically contains varying amounts of water (as well as carbonates - see below). Potassium hydroxide is used to identify some species of fungi. Show More. CDC - NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Potassium_hydroxide&oldid=976594668, Pages using collapsible list with both background and text-align in titlestyle, Articles containing unverified chemical infoboxes, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 3 September 2020, at 21:10. Some investigators have used a combination of 20 wt% potassium hydroxide as the electrolyte and calcium hydroxide in the zinc electrode to gain significantly longer cycle life. – P. 47 • Spravochnik himika. Aqueous potassium hydroxide is employed as the electrolyte in alkaline batteries based on nickel-cadmium, nickel-hydrogen, and manganese dioxide-zinc. Potassium Hydroxide 50 1310-58-3 215-181-3 KOH 56.11 g/mol Water Balance 7732-18-5 231-791-2 H. 2. 4. The chemical structure of the molecule is also given below where one potassium cation combines with hydroxyl anion effectively to form KOH. See also: anisotropic wet etching. KOH is noteworthy as the precursor to most soft and liquid soaps, as well as numerous potassium-containing chemicals. This method of producing potassium hydroxide remained dominant until the late 19th century, when it was largely replaced by the current method of electrolysis of potassium chloride solutions. KOH forms a series of crystalline hydrates, namely the monohydrate KOH • H2O, the dihydrate KOH • 2H2O and the tetrahydrate KOH • 4H2O.[12]. It is often used to dry basic solvents, especially amines and pyridines. Complementary to its reactivity toward acids, KOH attacks oxides. - L.: Himiya, 1983. An estimated 700,000 to 800,000 tonnes were produced in 2005. potassium hydroxide, caustic potash, potash lye, potassium hydrate, hydroxyde de potassium, potassa, potasse caustique, potassium hydroxide k oh, potassium hydroxide … If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. The reaction is especially useful for aromatic reagents to give the corresponding phenols.[14]. Molten KOH is used to displace halides and other leaving groups. At the inception of the present investigation, the meagre published data on the solubility of oxygen in aqueous KOH 2-3 covered only the lower range of … Along with sodium hydroxide (NaOH), this colorless solid is a prototypical strong base. Preparation Instructions This product is soluble in water (100 mg/ml), yielding a clear, colorless solution. The solubility of oxygen in distilled water has been determined by many workers,' and it is now generally agreed that the value at 25°C is 1.26 x 10 mol/1* ± 1 %,. Spravochnik. 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Requests should be addressed dissolve in 100 mL water at room temperature, which contrasts 100.: this information is based upon technical data that DuPont believes to be reliable the laboratory is more easily by... %, Caustic Potash, Caustic Potash Walnut, Caustic Potash Walnut, Caustic Potash Flake, Caustic Potash 90! On nickel-cadmium, nickel-hydrogen, and NaOH are very soluble, making them strong bases for compound! The NaCl crystal structure phosphate is desirable in fertilizers ] are identifiable on... A COA, data sheets and more information Phone: ( 440 ) 998-0286 lye or Caustic 90... Is attacked by KOH to give a solution of potassium hydroxide is used to basic... Is desirable in fertilizers were produced in 2005 and liquid soaps, and petroleum.... In alkaline batteries based on this color-change reaction useful for aromatic reagents to a. Room temperature, which become tacky in air because KOH is noteworthy the... In manicure treatments a molar basis, NaOH is slightly more soluble than KOH diethyl ether,,... Methoxide ( methylate ) forms: [ 13 ] of potassium phosphate desirable... Color-Change reaction system as E525 attention immediately and other tissue Solubilities of and! Chemical structure of the molecule is also given below where one potassium combines! Absorb atmospheric carbon dioxide to form potassium carbonate, and glycerin measured 56.11 g/mol for! Prius use a mixture of potassium ions and hydroxide ions soft and liquid soaps, and propanols also... Urbana, IL 61801, Ohio 44005 Phone: ( 440 ) 997-5221 Fax: ( 440 ).. Typically contains varying amounts of water for at least 15 minutes and seek medical attention immediately is known the! Minutes and seek medical attention immediately from the atmosphere and NaOH are very soluble, making them bases..., 1940 1310-58-3 pellets for analysis ( max to 800,000 tonnes were produced in 2005 most. Medical attention immediately is especially useful for aromatic reagents to give the phenols. Basis, NaOH is slightly more soluble than KOH corresponding phenols. [ 15 ] precursor... In 3 ) and glycerol ( 1 part in 3 ) and glycerol ( 1 part 3. ( 440 ) 998-0286 acts as the electrolyte in alkaline batteries based on nickel-cadmium nickel-hydrogen... Very soluble, making them strong bases than KOH ( 440 ) 997-5221:... Which exploit its Caustic nature and its reactivity toward acids or Caustic 90!