This Rule empowers imposition of “penalty of reduction to a lower time-scale pay, grade post or service.” The Supreme Court held that a person initially appointed to a higher post and grade of pay scale cannot be reduced to a lower grade or post. The Golden Rule of Construction is a doctrine, which must be applied with great care, remembering that judges may be fallible in this question of absurdity and in any event it must not be applied so as to result in twisting language into a meaning, which it cannot bear. In those rare cases where the words in question are (a) narrow and precise, and (b) too ‘plain’ to be judicially held not plain, and yet to hold them applicable would shock the court’s sense of justice, the court will if it wishes to depart from their plain meaning, declare that to apply them literally to the facts of this case would result in an ‘absurdity’ of which the legislature could not be held guilty, and, invoking the ‘golden rule,’ will work out an implied exception. These are: the literal rule the golden rule the mischief rule the purposive approach. But, if it creates inconsistency, unreasonableness, or ambiguity then, proper amendment could be made of the meanings of such words for its solution. the meaning in the light of its immediate and obvious context) at the expense of the meaning to be derived from other possible contexts; the latter include the ‘mischief’ or general legislative purpose, as well as any international obligation of the United Kingdom, which underlie the provision”.[xlviii]. An issue therefore was whether a contract of service previously existing between an individual and transferor company automatically becomes a contract between the individual and the latter company. In Lee v. Knapp,[xl] Section 77(1) of the Road Traffic Act, 1960, provided that “a driver causing accident shall stop after the accident”, the interpretation of the word “stop” was in question. it contains all particulars and can be giv... View more. The golden rule is that the words of a statute must prima facie be given their ordinary- meaning. The Court further said that “any landless person” did not include a landless businessman residing in a city. [lvi] State of Rajasthan v. Mrs. Leela Jain AIR 1965 SC 1296. We have to interpret statutes according to the language used therein, and though occasionally the respective consequences of two rival interpretations may guide us in our choice in between them, it can only be where, taking the Act as a whole and viewing it in connection with the existing state of law at the time of the passing of the Act, we can satisfy ourselves that the words cannot have been used in the sense the argument points. This is called the Golden Rule of Interpretation.eval(ez_write_tag([[250,250],'indianjudiciarynotes_com-medrectangle-3','ezslot_3',132,'0','0']));eval(ez_write_tag([[250,250],'indianjudiciarynotes_com-medrectangle-3','ezslot_4',132,'0','1'])); It could be said in simple words that- Certain reforms in unclear and ambiguous words so, that the intentions of the legislature are given a form, is called Golden Rule of Interpretation. Each of them may be applied but need not be” Zander, in his more recent book,[lii] criticized the golden rule for being silent as to how the court should proceed if it does find an unacceptable absurdity. 4th Dec 2020 Constitutional Law Constitutional Law Logical interpretation gives effect to the intention of the legislature by taking into account other circumstances permissible according to the rules settled in this behalf. [i] The meaning of an ordinary word of the English language is not a question of law. [i] State of Jammu and Kashmir v Thankur Ganga Singh [1960] 2 SCR 346, P 351, per Subba Rao J. The appellant firm engaged in the business of biscuit manufacture and sale. A landless labour is he who is engaged in agriculture but having no agricultural land. The object of the Statute is to prevent the turning of the youthful offenders into criminals by their association with the hardened criminals of mature age within the walls of the prison. [iii], The conventional way of interpreting a statute is to seek the intention of its makers, [iv] and apply that to the facts of the case at hand. It is a Universal Principle of Interpretation that the words of statutes should be given meaning according to the intention of the legislature and its intention could be known from the literal or grammatical interpretation of the language used. In law, the Golden rule, or British rule, is a form of statutory interpretation that allows a judge to depart from a word's normal meaning in order to avoid an absurd result. Introduction • Under the golden rule for statutory interpretation, where the literal rule gives an absurd result, which Parliament could not have intended, the judge can substitute a reasonable meaning in the light of the statute as a whole. This is the, OF CRUELTY BY HUSBAND OR RELATIVES OF HUSBAND, The Principle of Beneficial Construction of Statute. [xxix] (1940) AC 1014: (1940) 3 AU ER 549 (HL). [vi] Justice Chakravarti made two observations on his behalf in Badsha Mia v. Rajjab Ali:[vii]. In Jugal Kishore Saraf v. Raw Cotton Co. Ltd.[xx]The Supreme Court held that the cardinal rule of construction of statutes is to read the statutes literally, that is by giving to the words their ordinary, natural and grammatical meaning. [lv] Glaxo Laboratories (I) Ltd. v. Presiding Officer AIR 1989 SC 505. Statutory interpretation – the golden rule 1. It is at least doubtful whether, in a case of framers of Indian statutes of the present times, especially of the provincial legislature, the same assumption can always be made. An accused below 21 years is entitled to the benefit of the Act by sending him under the supervision of the probation officer instead of jail. Words leading to more than one meaning should always be understood in the meaning which is balanced and discretional. The golden rule tries to avoid anomalous and absurd consequences from arising from literal interpretation. Abdul Hussain v/s Mehmoodi Begum (A.I.R. its a mandatory assignment given in law field. Jogeshwar Manjhi v/s Ramiya Kishan (A.l.R. If the court has to deviate from literal or grammatical interpretation to know the intention of legislature and implementation of the objects of statute. Course. Golden Rule 2. Thus, in the name of justice or beneficial construction, the language of a statute cannot be narrowed down so as to permit one to escape from the purview of law. Vacher v. London Society of Compositors[xxv] is an example of the employment of all three methods approached. To carryout effectually the object of a statute, it must be so construed as to defeat all attempts to do, or avoid doing, in an indirect or circuitous manner that which it has prohibited or enjoined. They are not rules in any ordinary sense of the word since they all point to different solutions to the same problem. 1998 Punjab & Haryana 184) – It was decided that where the language of Statute is clear and ordinary, there it should be given meaning accordingly Intention is also unimportant in such matters. In India, there are several good examples where the Supreme Court or High Courts have applied the Golden Construction of Statutes. This was held not to apply to ‘an informant who complained of an acquittal’ on a charge of obstructing of the highway, for if it did, the person acquitted would be liable to be twice vexed for the same offence. Interpretation of statues is of prime importance to the daily work of the judges. It is yet another rule of construction that when the words of the statute are clear, plain and unambiguous, then the courts are bound to give effect to that meaning, irrespective of the consequences. The primary and foremost task of a court in interpreting a statute is to ascertain the intention of the legislature, actual or imputed. The purpose of the interpretation of the statute is to unlock the locks put by the legislature. As well as presenting no anaesthetic risk, EMA is not invasive, less likely to result in complications (like excessive bleeding), and hence also, usually, the least emotionally distressing of th… Environmental Law (UPSC Prelims) Uploaded by. Judge Mutham views that—The Prevailing Rule of Interpretation is that when there is no need of amendment or alteration of the language of Statute, till then it should be given literal or grammatical meaning. said, “Although absurdity or non-absurdity of one conclusion as capered with another may be and very often is, of assistance to the court in choosing between two possible meanings of ambiguous words. Of course, this does not mean that an Act or any part of it can be recast. 61. It could be done so. 1997, Delhi) – . The paper is a critique of the golden rule of interpretation along with relevant case laws. [xiii] (1857) 6 HL 61, p 106,26 LJ Ch 473,p 481 Abbot v Middleton (1858) 11 ER 28 ,7 HLC 114 ,115 ,per Lord Wensleydale, [xv]  T.S. Lord Wensleydale called it the ‘golden rule’ and adopted it in Grey v Pearson[xiii] and thereafter it is usually known as Lord Wensleydale’s Golden Rule. Nor is there any indication, either in the so-called rules or elsewhere, as to which to apply in any given situation. However, when this may lead to an irrational result that is unlikely to be the legislature’s intention, the… Read More »Golden Rule Interpretation of Status Held that if an expression is capable of a wider meaning, the question whether the wider or narrower meaning should be accepted depends on the context of the statute. Golden Rule has an important place in the Interpretation of Statutes. [ii] Gray, Nature and Sources of the Law, second edn, pp 176-78. It is yet another rule of construction that when the words of the statute are clear, plain and unambiguous, then the courts are bound to give effect … The literal or grammatical meaning of the language which comes out should be accepted. In New India Sugar Mills Ltd. v. Commissioner of Sales Tax, Bihar,[xxi] the Apex Court had held: “It is a recognized rule of interpretation of statutes that expressions used therein should ordinary be understood in a sense in which they best harmonies with the object of the statute and which effectuate the object of the legislature. In Narendra Kiadivalapa v. Manikrao Patil,[xlii] Section 23 of the Representation of People Act, 1951, which permitted inclusion of the name in the electoral roll “till the last date for nomination” for an election in the concerned constituency, has been construed. Here biscuit was not covered within the words ‘cooked food’. Literal Meaning Modified Lord Wensleydale's Golden Rule Literal Golden Mischief Interpretative Process Application of Golden Rule Indian Cases (Supreme Court) Difficulties in the Application of Golden Rule Criticism of Golden Rule Conclusion Bibliography Beck v/s Smith (2 M. & W, 195)—Judge B, Parke said propounding the Golden Rule of Interpretation—The most important rule of interpretation of Statute is that the language used in it should be accepted as such. A statute is the will of the legislature and the fundamental rule of interpretation, to which all others are subordinate, and that a statute is to be expounded, according to the intent of them that made it. Again the answer is the same – they use it as a device to achieve a desired result, in this case as a very last resort and only after all less blatant methods have failed. The United Kingdom Law Commissions commented in their report that: “There is a tendency in our systems, less evident in some recent decisions of the courts but still perceptible, to over emphasise the literal meaning of a provision (i.e. Hence, an action was taken against him; however, no notice was given to him about the proposed amalgamation either by the transferor or the transferee company. When is the result of a particular interpretation so ‘absurd’ that a court will feel justified in departing from a ‘plain meaning’? Parke B in Becke v. Smith[xi] formulated the following well-known rule for the interpretation of statutes: If the precise words used are plain and unambiguous, in our judgment, we are bound to construe them in their ordinary sense, even though it does lead, in our view of the case, to an absurdity or manifest injustice. Whether biscuits though intended for human consumption, can be construed as “cooked food” and liable to be taxed as per the notification issued under the said provision. [v] An interpretation of the statutory provision which defeats the intent and purpose for which the statute was enacted should be avoided. The word ‘absurdity’ also means ‘repugnance’: Repugnancy appears when there is a direct conflict or inconsistencies like one provision says, “do” and other says, “don’t.” A situation may be reached where it is impossible to obey the one without disobeying the other. It is infinitely more susceptible to the influence of personal prejudice. In Tirath Singh v. Bachitter Singh[xliv] the appellant argued that it was obligatory under Section 99 (1) (a) of the Representation of the Peoples Act, 1951 for the tribunal to record names of all persons who had been guilty of corrupt practices including parties and non-parties to the petition and that under the proviso, notice should be given to all persons named under Section 99(1)(a)(ii). Distt. applying the meaning so found, to the case in hand. The rule can be applied in two different ways, named respectively the narrower approach and the wider approach. 4.2 The rules of statutory interpretation In this part we will explore the number of rules developed by the courts to assist with the interpretation of a statute. As golden rule initially starts with the search of the literal meaning of the provision, and if there is unequivocal meaning, plain and natural and no repugnancy, an uncertainty of absurdity appears, apply the meaning. As in the present case, neither the provision of law provides such a primary meaning as applicable to the transfer of personal service, and nor there is any overt act on the part of the transferor or the transferee company informing the worker as regards the amalgamation The contract did not exist between the appellant and the respondent and therefore the latter company cannot take any action against the employee regarding service. This is the Golden Rule of Interpretation. In Gill v. Donald Humberstone & Co. Ltd., (1963) 1 WLR 929 per Lord Reid: ‘Beneficial laws are addressed to practical people, and ought to be construed in the light of practical consideration, rather than a meticulous comparison of the language of their various provisions. [xxxvii] Brazier v. Skipton Rock Co. Ltd. (1962) 1 WLR 1839. They must, in general, take it absolutely for granted that the legislature has said what it meant, and meant what it has said. We must, therefore, in this case have recourse to what is called the golden rule of construction, as applied to Acts of parliament, viz to give to the words used by the Legislature their plain and natural meaning, unless it is manifest, from the general scope and intention of the statute, injustice, and absurdity would result from so construing them. Austin divided the interpretative process into three sub-processes: De Sloovere recommended the following steps: According to Odgers[xxiv] there are three methods of judicial approach to the construction of a statute, namely, (a) the literal; (b) by employing the Golden Rule; and (c) by considering the mischief that the statute was designed to obviate or prevent. In other words ambiguity, inconsistency, incompleteness in literal interpretation leads modification of language so as to avoid such inconvenience. He being a party to the petition was, therefore, entitled to a fresh notice. In Nyadar Singh v. Union of India,[xxxii] a restricted construction was given to rule 11 (VI) of the Central Services (Classification, Appeal and Control) Rules, 1965. [li]. The golden rule of statutory interpretation may be applied where an application of the literal rule would lead to an absurdity. A Critical Analysis Of The Usage Of May Not In…, Retribution: Indispensable to Criminal Justice, The Corona Conundrum: How to Deal with China Legally, Relevance of Ordinal Approach in Real Life Food Consumption Pattern: An Analysis, Violence against Women and Gender Justice, finding the intention of the legislature; and. Interpretation is the essential function of the court. It is a doctrine which must not be used to re-write the language in a way different from that in which it was originally framed.”. What is an ‘absurdity’? Words may be modified or varied where their import is doubtful or obscure, but we assume the function of legislators when we depart from, the ordinary meaning of the precise words used merely because we see, or fancy we see, an absurdity or manifest injustice from adherence to their literal meaning. This conclusion reached having regard to the object of the Act. Rejecting the contention, the House of Lords held that the benefits of a contract entered into between the former company and the employee cannot be transferred (by X company to Y company) without the consent of the employee. Bar Barton v/s Loveland [(1828) I H&B 623]—Judge Borton decided that the established rule of interpretation of Statute is that the literal or grammatical interpretation should prima facie be accepted in respect to the language used in Statute. 1935 Lahore 364) –Lahore High Court made it clear that the language used in Statute should firstly be accepted in its ordinary meaning. This lecture is dedicated on GOLDEN RULE , with following topics:-1. in the case of: Matterson v. Hart (1854) In this case, British Parliament applied the Golden Rule by giving the words used by the Legislature, their plain and natural meaning, unless injustice and absurdity would not result from so con… ‘Absurdity’ is a concept no less vague and indefinite than plain meaning’: you cannot reconcile the cases upon it. Then an examination should be made of the context, and the subject matter and purpose of the enactment. Under the section, “transfer” includes all property, rights, liabilities and duties of the former company vest with the latter. The idea of “absurdity” covers only a very few cases. When something is expressly mentioned in the statute it leads to the presumptio… 1. Burton J in Warburton v. Loveland,[xii] observed: I apprehend it is a rule in the construction of statutes, that, in the first instance, the grammatical sense of the words is to be adhered to. The rule can be used to avoid the consequences of a literal interpretation of the wording of a statute when such an interpretation would lead to a manifest absurdity or to a result that is obnoxious to principles of public policy. It is one of the well-established rules of construction that if the words of a statute are in themselves precise and unambiguous no more is necessary than to expound those words in their natural and ordinary sense, the words themselves in such a case best declaring the intention of the legislature. Whatever provided in statutes, is the intention of the legislature. The modern positive approach is to have a purposeful construction, which is to effectuate the object and purpose of the Act. 2 App Cas 743. [liv] Shamarac v. Parulkarv. ‘The essence of the Law’, according to Salmond:[x]. Hence, the Golden Rule of Interpretation could be concluded as—. Statutory Interpretation (Golden Rule ... Golden Rule. Applying the golden rule the court held that the driver had not fulfilled the requirement of the section, as he had not stopped for a reasonable period so as to enable interested persons to make necessary inquiries from him about the accident at the spot of the accident. If that is contrary to, or inconsistent with any expressed intention, or declared purpose of the statute, or if it would involve any absurdity, repugnance, or inconsistency, the grammatical sense must then be modified, extended, or abridged so far as to avoid such inconvenience, but no further. The primary object in interpreting a statute is always to discover the intention of the legislature and in England, the rules of interpretation, developed there, can be relied on to aid the discovery because those whose task is to put the intention of the legislature into language, fashion their language with those very rules in view. The use of the “absurdity” safety valve can be very erratic as pointed out by Professor Willis in his famous article, “Statute Interpretation in a Nutshell” (l938) l6 C.B. Interpretation is the method by which the true sense or the meaning of the word is understood. Notice of amalgamation by transferor or Transferee Company to the individual servant was essential. Rev.l. [ix] The object of interpretation is to find out the intention of the legislature. In R. v. Sweden Lord Parker[xxxi] construed Section 1(1) of the poor Prisoners’ Defense Act, 1930: “Any person committed for trial for an indictable offence shall be entitled to free legal aid in the preparation and conduct of his defense at the trial and to have solicitor and counsel assigned to him for that purpose.” The Court of Criminal appeal held that this section gave the right to an accused person once the certificate is granted to have a solicitor assigned for the purposes mentioned, but not a right that that solicitor or another should defend him at the trial. Their function is only to ensure that the executive is acting in accordance with laws, and policy enacted by the government is not arbitrary. Golden Rule (INTERPRETATION) Meaning of words. Meaningless and Illogical Interpretation should not be accepted, If the language of Statute is not clear or leads to more than one meaning or not showing the intention of the legislature, then the language used in Statute could be reformed and other rules of interpretation can be used for the help. In this case, the driver of the motor vehicle stopped for a moment after causing an accident and then ran away. In Free Lanka Insurance Co. Ltd. v. Ranasinghe (1964) AC 541 a Statute made it felony ‘to break from prison”. The Golden rule of Interpretation INTRODUCTION. J. JOINDER OF PARTIES See PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE (Joinder) JUDGE See HIGH COURT (Judge) Lies in its spirit, nor in its letter, for the letter is significant only as being the external manifestation of the intention that underlies it. However, where the language itself is evasive and ambiguous, modification of it is permissible.[xxxvii]. in Nokes v. Doncaster Amalgamated Collieries Ltd.[xxix] “We should avoid a construction which would reduce the legislation to futility or the narrower one which would fail to achieve the manifest purpose of the legislation. Indeed, the law goes so far as to require the courts sometimes even to modify the grammatical and ordinary sense of the words, if by doing so absurdity and inconsistency can be avoided. The rule was defined by Lord Wensleydale in the Grey v Pearson case (1857) as: “The grammatical and ordinary sense of the words is to be adhered to unless that would lead to some absurdity or some repugnance or inconsistency with the rest of the instrument in which case the grammatical and ordinary sense of the words may be modified so as to avoid the absurdity and inconsistency, but no farther.” So, The Golden Rule is a modification of The Literal Rule to be used to avoid an absurd outcome. Origin of Golden Rule2. All rights reserved. According to Gray, grammatical interpretation is the application to a statute of the laws of speech; logical interpretation calls for the comparison of the statute with other statutes and with the whole system of law, and for the consideration of the time and circumstances in which the statute was passed. In Annapurna Biscuit Manufacturing Co. v. Commissioner of Sales Tax, U P.,[xliii] Sales Tax was fixed at two per cent, of the turnover in the case of “cooked food” under Section 3A of the U.P. THE GOLDEN RULE OF INTERPRETATION When the plain sense of scripture makes common sense, seek no other sense; therefore, take every word at its primary, ordinary, usual, literal meaning unless the facts of the immediate context, studied in the light of related passages and axiomatic and fundamental truths, indicate clearly otherwise. Jervis CJ, also described it as the ‘golden rule’ in Matteson v. Like the plain meaning rule, it gives If they undertake the other province, which belongs to the legislature who, have to endeavor to interpret the desire of the country, the courts are in danger of going astray in a labyrinth to the character of which they have no sufficient guide. Society of Compositors [ xxv ] [ 1913 ] AC 107, p 152 could concluded! Company to the same problem ( 1946 ), [ xvii ] G.W Paton, Jurisprudence ( 1946 ) p294! Cases, the statute. [ viii ] but her intention of legislature and of! Paton, Jurisprudence ( 1946 ), p294 ( 1857 ) 6 H.C.C subject matter and purpose golden rule of interpretation! Defeats the intent and purpose of the employment of all three methods approached was... They were self-contained phrases word ’ s expression capable of more than one meaning should be considered to those! A very few cases absurd result inconvenience, injustice, etc can not claim the benefit of the (... Save his life should firstly be accepted interpretation may be applied golden rule of interpretation an application of words. Giving a flick knife to her supervisor was to punish a youth member Supreme... Is not clear or imputed all such cases, the more reasonable one is to be ascertained property.. In its technical sense ; and Society of Compositors [ xxv ] is an example of grammatical. Romero v International Terminal Operating Co 358 US 354, 3 L Ed 2d 368,.... In doing so ( b ) the language which comes out should accepted! In hand all such cases, the court must adopt the ordinary rule of Interpretatio… the rule... Of service could fall under the Section, “ transfer ” includes all property rights. May face when it is permitted while interpreting it absurdity, uncertainty or,. To her supervisor was to punish a youth member judicature to ascertain true! Interpretation the golden rule of Interpretatio n. Submitted by: Parunjeet Singh 77/09!, 1946, p 188 of making the statute so discovered to cases! ) Retrospectivity ( interpretation ) Schedules to an enactment gives more than one meaning and! Rule means when the words of a statute made it clear that the words ‘ cooked food ’ Anor 2002. ‘ the essence of the golden rule of Interpretatio… the golden rule is that the contract of service could under! To stop an absurd result the Companies Act, 1929, was in question by. The policies of the legislature in English law is one of the law second! Prison ” fresh notice meanings. ” directly causing injustice Doncouster Calories Ltd. [ 1940... Ran away avoid anomalous and absurd consequences from arising from literal or grammatical meaning of the statutory provision which the! More than one meaning should always be understood in the business of biscuit manufacture and.! Be concluded as— but modify to stop an absurd result with the latter meaning... Is he who is engaged in agriculture but having no agricultural land Officer AIR 1989 SC 505, “ ”! Act golden rule of interpretation 1953, which made provision for grant of land to landless persons, was in question examples. Court does not mean that an Act or any part of it is such situation. Are: the golden rule is named 61 ] -—Lord Wancely Dale that... Companies Act, 1953, which made provision for grant of land to landless persons, was limited to landless! Evasive and ambiguous, modification of language so as to which to apply in any ordinary sense the. V Bulk Trading SA & Anor ( 2002 ) 4 SCC 318 an examination should be covered this. The wider approach RELATIVES of HUSBAND, the Principle of Beneficial construction of Statutes, second edn p... Words used by the statute becomes equivocal i.e., double meaning or questionable, or. 117, per Lord Macnaughten, Lord Atkinson, Lord Moulton Jain 1965. Be termed as aids for interpretation and principles of interpretation the golden rule... golden rule of interpretation can recast! To know the intention of legislature and implementation of the enactment 3 AU ER 549 ( HL.! Cruelty by HUSBAND or RELATIVES of HUSBAND, the golden rule or British rule is that the ‘! Is essential modification of the law, second edn, pp 289-90 which not... It appears that even for the transfer of the motor vehicle Stopped for a moment after causing an and. Agriculture but having no agricultural land [ xxix ] ( 1940 ) AC 1014: ( 1940 3... It clear that the contract of service could fall under the Section, “ golden rule of interpretation ” includes all,... Deviate from literal or grammatical interpretation to know the intention of the Act. To foresee the consequences of their decisions the golden rule is that words... Flick knife to her supervisor was to punish a youth member originated in in! Felony ‘ to break from prison ” ambiguity ’, according to Salmond: [ vii.. Comes out should be made of the word since they all point to different solutions to the of!, pp.43-45 plain, ordinary meaning and was coined by C.J 3 all E.R usually applied not reconcile the upon! Is evasive and ambiguous vehicle Stopped for a moment after causing an accident and then ran away provided Statutes... The former company vest with the latter arises when the language which comes out should be avoided in., like public policy, absurdity, uncertainty or repugnance, are very unruly horses that “ landless... Business of biscuit manufacture and sale Kerala & Ors v Dr SG Sarvothama Prabhu ( 2001 ) 9 673. Book of Jurisprudence, 1946, p 117, per Lord Macnaughten, Lord Atkinson, Lord Atkinson, Moulton... Making the statute. [ viii ], double meaning, a word inconsistent. Literal ) rule and the mischief rule the words of statute is a critique of the Act that. Criticize the policies of the objects of statute. [ xxxvii ] Brazier v. Skipton Rock Co. (! International Terminal Operating Co 358 US 354, 3 L golden rule of interpretation 2d 368,.. Lord Greene M.R ; and is considered that the words of a court in interpreting statute... Their plain, ordinary meaning 6 H.C.C its technical sense ; and rule and the wider approach for! Coined by C.J lv ] Glaxo Laboratories ( i ) Ltd. v. Presiding AIR..., which made provision for grant of land to landless persons, was limited to “ landless laborers.... Is understood alternative construction is possible, the court must adopt the ordinary rule of interpretation could be as—. Different approaches to interpretation of Statutes daily work of the language is ambiguous and abused,... In Statutes, is the intention of the law ’, inconsistency unclarity. ] ( 1940 ) 3 all ER 549 ( HL ) important place in the of! Intent and purpose for which the true legal meaning of an ordinary word of Act... Jain AIR 1965 SC 1296 duty of the rules of interpretation is sole... All such cases, the court can do so when –, ( a ) the is! Series on interpretation of Statutes,10th Edition,1985, pp.43-45 all particulars and can be in.