His reforms failed in the short term, yet he is often credited with … … ): Diese Seite wurde zuletzt am 6. In the first part, Solon's poetry is reconsidered against the background of oral poetics and other early Greek poetry. Solon was born in Athens around 638 B.C. Solon of Athens was an historical figure of great significance, quoted by some 115 classical and post-classical authors. ): Plutarch, Solon 27,1; zitiert nach Pavel Oliva: „In many respects Solon and his associates, who helped to formulate these reforms, did more than any other individuals to advance an determine the economic development of Athens over the next several centuries“ (Phillip V. Stanley: Problemdarstellung bei Chambers, S. 76 f. (Aristoteles: „…he undoubtly used factual information that he found in his sources in a quite scrupulous way, as he always did“ (Lukas de Blois: Wikisource: Friedrich Schiller: Die Gesetzgebung des Lykurgus und Solon, https://de.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Solon&oldid=199670679, „Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike“, griechischer Politiker und Gesetzgeber Athens. In Solon’s lifetime, the Greeks had not yet begun to write history or biography. formulated an influential code of laws and has been regarded as the founder of Athenian democracy. Many citizens were reduced to the status of share croppers, and others had actually sold themselves into slavery to meet their debts. The first written code at Athens, that of Draco (c. 621 bce), was still in force. Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. SOLON of Athens Diogenes Laertius I. By the early 6th century B.C. In Solon’s time these nobles governed the city-state of Athens, and their rule made the lives of the common people increasingly difficult. Siegle deine Worte mit Schweigen, dein Schweigen mit dem rechten Augenblick. very closely resembles the way that archaic Greek tyrants succeeded at dealing with similar problems in other city-states. In this way, he dismantled the cruel law code of Draco. Before Solon, the eupatridai (nobles) had a monopoly on the government by virtue of their birth. Solon the poet“, „II. This volume offers a range of innovative approaches to Solon of Athens, legendary law-giver, statesman, and poet of the early sixth century B.C. This measure, known popularly as the “shaking off of burdens,” was described by Solon in one of his poems: These things the black earth…could best witness for the judgment of posterity; from whose surface I plucked up the marking-stones [probably signs of the farmers’ indebtedness] planted all about, so that she who was enslaved is now free. Elected chief magistrate in 594 B.C., he was given special powers to deal with the emergency brought on by civil war. Dissertation Lausanne 1907 (Grundlegende, aber veraltete Studie). Solon (c.640-559 B.C.) Zu Beginn des ersten Teils unternimmt es … In his reform measures, he pleased neither the revolutionaries who wanted the land … Under the Draconian laws preceding Solon, a creditor was allowed to claim the debtor's person in payment on money owed. The Greek statesman and poet Solon played a decisive role in the development of democracy in Athens. This volume offers a range of innovative approaches to Solon of Athens, legendary law-giver, statesman, and poet of the early sixth century B.C. The rapid spread of the new coinage and of Athenian products, particularly olive oil and pottery, throughout the commercial world of the times, attested by archaeology, shows that these measures were effective. He was the chief of the seven sages, a fierce opponent of tyranny, and a steadfastly moderate politician with the good of both rich and poor at heart; he was a philosopher, a poet, or any combination of the above. Lerne beherrscht zu werden, und du wirst zu herrschen wissen. Leiden 2006 (aktuelle Beiträge, die teils die Historizität nicht nur der überlieferten Ereignisse, sogar der Person Solons selbst radikal in Frage stellen). This debt-slavery, which reduced humans to being but an extension of their own financial agreements, progressively emiserated Athens. Solon, (born c. 630 bce —died c. 560 bce ), Athenian statesman, known as one of the Seven Wise Men of Greece (the others were Chilon of Sparta, Thales of Miletus, Bias of Priene, Cleobulus of Lindos, Pittacus of Mytilene, and Periander of Corinth ). Under the Draconian laws preceding Solon, a creditor was allowed to claim the debtor's person in payment on money owed. Solon wanted to revise or abolish the older laws of Draco. Share with your friends. Buy Devices, Apparel, Shoes, Books & more. At the time of Solon the Athenian State was almost falling to pieces in consequence of dissensions between the parties into which the population was divided. It was probably about 20 years later that he was given full powers as reformer and legislator. Bücher schnell und portofrei The poorer farmers were easily driven into debt by them and when unable to pay were reduced to the condition of serfs on their own land and, in extreme cases, sold into slavery. Solon of Athens: New Historical and Philological Approaches Josine H. Blok, Andre P. M. H. Lardinois. Lardinois (Hrsg. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. But a strong conservative element remained in the ancient Council of the Hill of Ares (Areopagus), and the people themselves for a long time preferred to entrust the most important positions to members of the old aristocratic families. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Solon wird oft als erster großer Staatsmann der griechischen und europäischen Geschichte bezeichnet. Solon of Athens: New Historical and Philological Approaches Josine H. Blok , Andre P. M. H. Lardinois This volume offers a range of innovative approaches to Solon of Athens, legendary law-giver, statesman, and poet of the early sixth century B.C. View Solon of Athens Research Papers on Academia.edu for free. A discussion of Plutarch's Life of Solon, the lawgiver of Athens. Solon - Solon - Code of laws: Solon’s third great contribution to the future good of Athens was his new code of laws. Wenn du von anderen Rechenschaft forderst, gib sie auch selbst. This volume offers a range of innovative approaches to Solon of Athens, legendary law-giver, statesman, and poet of the early sixth century B.C. Solon had already held office as archon (annual chief ruler) about 594 bce. Solon the Lawgiver. All that was retained of … “How can you not be?” – asked the annoyed Croesuseventually. It is believed that his reforms failed in the short term, yet they would lay the foundation for Athenian democracy. While historical documentation on him is limited, he is known for his efforts to legislate against political, economic, and moral decline in archaic Athens. Solon, mosaic from Suweydie near Baalbek. He worked as a merchant in the export-import trade, and he considered himself relatively poor. There are several theories as to when Solon's work was completed. Our site updates daily and contains masses of solutions to hints published for crosswords every day. Solon (c. 638 – c. 558 BC) was an Athenian statesman, lawmaker, and poet. Solon of Athens Sometime during the period of 594/3 to 570 B.C., the citizens of Athens gave one of their foremost statesmen, Solon, the task of creating new laws for them because of troubles that had been plaguing them. Rate nicht das Angenehmste, sondern das Beste den Bürgern. In einer weit ausgreifenden Weise resümiert der Band den Forschungsstand zu Solon und zu den politischen, sozialen, wirtschaftlichen und literarischen Bedingungen Athens um 600 v. Chr. Quotations by Solon, Greek Statesman, Born 638 BC. Im Jahre 594 v. Chr. Possible Answers From Our DataBase: SAGESOFGREECE. Josine Blok, André P.M.H. “Have you, on some of your travels, encountered upon someone more fortunate than me? Solon had already gained the trust of the Athenians through his poetic work. In the course of the late seventh and sixth century, when Greece was experiencing rapid social and political changes, many Greek towns were ruled by tyrants or sole rulers. Enjoy the best Solon Quotes at BrainyQuote. As the tradition states and his travels and economic measures suggest, he may have been a merchant. Yet it was Solon’s political soluti… However, Solon wasn’t impressed in the least bit by all this splendor; and he seemed even less fascinated by the achievements of his host. A celebrated Athenian legislator, born about B.C. He did not worship money, as is evident from some poems of his. Solon lived in Athens, approximately from 640 to 560 BC, and was called upon to rule Athens in 594 BC, during a deep financial and social crisis. Kelcy Sagstetter Jeremy McInerney 1I argue that, despite Solon's reputation as an enemy of tyranny, his approach to solving the political discord in Athens in 594 B.C. In the first part, Solon’s poetry is reconsidered against the background of oral poetics and other early Greek poetry. ): Gregory Nagy, Maria Noussia-Fantuzzi (Hrsg. As a statesman, Solon put principles before expediency. After dealing with the immediate crises in 6th century Athens, Solon redefined citizenship so as to create the foundations of democracy. Solon the Athenian“; den Schluss bilden eine Appendix und mehrere Indices. In the first part, Solon’s poetry is reconsidered against the background of oral poetics and other early Greek poetry. He is one of Seven Sages (or Wise Men) of Greece, because of his political reforms to the laws of Athens. Essai de critique historique. Former Senior Lecturer in Ancient History, University of Edinburgh. Z.) If you’ve looked for a solution to Solon of Athens, Thales of Miletus, etc. This was he set the foundation for the e… The higher governmental posts were reserved for citizens of the top two income groups. Solon (c.650-561): Athenian statesman, poet, and lawgiver, one of the Seven sages. After dealing with the immediate crises in 6th century Athens, Solon redefined citizenship so as to create the foundations of democracy. war ein athenischer Staatsmann und Lyriker. Solon was born into a well-to-do family of Athens. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? Under the Draconian laws preceding Solon, a creditor was allowed to claim the debtor's person in payment on money owed. He lived from 630 B.C.- 560 B.C. Solon (c.650-561): Athenian statesman, poet, and lawgiver, one of the Seven sages. The intermediate classes of middling farmers, craftsmen, and merchants resented their exclusion from the government. Auch wird There are several theories as to when Solon's work was completed. Solon replaced this hereditary aristocracy with one based on wealth. So begrüßenswert dies ist, so zeigt das Buch doch auch, dass die problematische Quellensituation einer gesicherten Erkenntnis Grenzen setzt und wie schwer es ist, auf … Updates? This volume offers a range of innovative approaches to Solon of Athens, legendary law-giver, statesman, and poet of the early sixth century B.C. Solon acted decisively. He redeemed all the forfeited land and freed all the enslaved citizens, probably by fiat. Solon’s new political constitution abolished the monopoly of the eupatridae and substituted for it government by the wealthy citizens. Angesichts der ansonsten spärlichen und gerade mit Blick auf chronologische Fragen unsicheren Überlieferung zu den Akteuren und Entwicklungen im archaischen Griechenlandsind die erhaltenen Zeugnisse von Solons Wirken vergleichsweise reichhaltig. Bücher . Solon of Athens Sometime during the period of 594/3 to 570 B.C., the citizens of Athens gave one of their foremost statesmen, Solon, the task of creating new... Home Page Solon of Athens He also prohibited for the future all loans secured on the borrower’s person. Omissions? Solon lived in Athens, approximately from 640 to 560 BC, and was called upon to rule Athens in 594 BC, during a deep financial and social crisis. This made him very popular among the people. His father Execestides was a descendant of Codrus, and his mother was a cousin of the mother of Pisistratus. Bücher schnell und portofrei The Solonian Constitution was created by Solon in the early 6th century BC. isch en athenische Staatsmaa und Lüriker.Im Vergliich zu andere Lüt us sinere Zit wäiss mä über e Solon relativ vil. Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. Solon of Athens: New Historical and Philological Approaches (Mnemosyne, Bibliotheca Classica Batava Supplementum) (Mnemosyne, Bibliotheca Classica Batava Supplementum) This volume offers a range of innovative approaches to Solon of Athens, legendary law-giver, statesman, and poet of … In the first part, Solon s poetry is reconsidered against the background of oral poetics and other early Greek poetry. Riesige Sammlung, hervorragende Auswahl, mehr als 100 Mio. He also went a step further and wiped the slate clean, canceling all former debts and doing away with the hated horos. These social, economic, and political evils might well have culminated in a revolution and subsequent tyranny (dictatorship), as they had in other Greek states, had it not been for Solon, to whom Athenians of all classes turned in the hope of a generally satisfactory solution of their problems. und stellt neue Modelle zur Diskussion. πλεόν γὰρ ὧδε νικήσειν δωκέω / πάντας ἀνθρώπους (Solon, Fragment 32, 1–5 (West); Christoph Mülke (Hrsg. And I brought back to Athens…many who had been sold, justly or unjustly, or who had fled under the constraint of debt, wandering far afield and no longer speaking the Attic tongue; and I freed those who suffered shameful slavery here and trembled at their masters’ whims. Solon lived in Athens, approximately from 640 to 560 BC, and was called upon to rule Athens in 594 BC, during a deep financial and social crisis. This volume offers a range of innovative approaches to Solon of Athens, legendary law-giver, statesman, and poet of the early sixth century B.C. “Have you, on some of your travels, encountered upon someone more fortunate than me? Because he believed in moderation and in an ordered society in which each class had its proper place and function, his solution was not revolution but reform. The legacy of Solon of Athens is far-ranging. Zum Hauptinhalt wechseln.de Hallo, Anmelden Konto und Listen Anmelden Konto und Listen Warenrücksendungen und Bestellungen Entdecken Sie Prime Einkaufswagen. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Solon, Ancient History Encyclopedia - Biography of Solon, Solon - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). He did not worship money, as is evident from some poems of his. Solon ended exclusive aristocratic control of the government, substituted a system of control by the wealthy, and introduced a new and more humane law code. New Historical and Philological Approaches. Chr.) The legacy of Solon of Athens is far-ranging. Die solonischen Reformen werden allgemein auf 594/593 v. Chr. wurde Solon zum Gesetzgeber mit außerordentlichen Vollmachten ernannt. Solon (/ ˈ s oʊ l ɒ n / or / ˈ s oʊ l ə n /; Ancient Greek: Σόλων, c. 638 BC – 558 BC) was an Athenian statesman, lawmaker, and poet.He is remembered particularly for his efforts to legislate against political, economic, and moral decline in archaic Athens.His reforms failed in the short term, yet he is often credited with having laid the foundations for Athenian democracy. Solon of Athens Sometime during the period of 594/3 to 570 B.C., the citizens of Athens gave one of their foremost statesmen, Solon, the task of creating new laws for them because of troubles that had been plaguing them. He introduced the court and judges. To solve Athens’ economic woes, he encouraged the planting and export of olive oil, and forbade the sale of other foodstuffs abroad. Mai 2020 um 11:02 Uhr bearbeitet. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Indeed, my Athenian friend, as one who loves learning and who has traveled much of the world for the sake of seeing it, tell me whom you consider to be the happiest man in the world?” Solon was famous for his integrity, so he offer… Yet in terms of recent scholarship, no one since Woodhouse (1938) has written exclusively on Solon, and not since Linforth (1919) has there been a commentary on each individual fragment of Solon's poetry. Ein Archon war eine Art Beamter. 61 [Life of Solon]: "Besides the laws, of course, he wrote Speeches to the People and Exhortations to himself in elegiacs, and the poems on Salamis and Athenaion Politeia , 5000 lines in all; also Iambics and Epodes . In these remaining writings, he mainly focuses on his political views and reflects on patriotism and love of justic… The Greek statesman and poet Solon (active 594 B.C.) Instead, he passed measures designed to increase the general prosperity and to provide alternative occupations for those unable to live by farming: e.g., trades and professions were encouraged; the export of produce other than olive oil was forbidden (so much grain had been exported that not enough remained to feed the population of Attica); the circulation of coined money (invented in Solon’s lifetime) was stimulated by the minting of a native Athenian coinage on a more-suitable standard than that of the coins of neighbours, which had been used hitherto; and new weights and measures were introduced. Dr Solon (altgriech. He was also a noted poet. Solon war ein athenischer Staatsmann und Lyriker. NOW 50% OFF! Also, as he had understood that farming couldn't get people enough for living, he envisioned to make Athens a powerful trade centre and to have Athenian ships traverse the Aegean and the Mediterranean Sea. Solon of Athens by Josine Blok, 2006, Brill edition, in English It was not until the 5th century that accounts of his life and works began to be put together, on the evidence of his poems (of which the 300 or so lines preserved by quotation probably represent only a small proportion), his law code, oral tradition, and inference from existing institutions. Poetry was for Solon a way to entertain himself, and he also used poetry to give his ideas easy access to the minds of the Athenians. Owens, R: Solon of Athens: Amazon.de: Owens, Ron: Bücher. Solon (c. 640 – c. 560 BCE) was an Athenian statesman, lawmaker, and poet, who is credited with restructuring the social and political organisation of Athens and thereby laying the foundations for Athenian democracy. Solon was of noble descent but moderate means. Often, these men were aristocrats who had seized extra powers, sometimes relying on a group … hochwertige und bezahlbare, lizenzfreie sowie lizenzpflichtige Bilder. Zu diesem Zeitpunkt befindet sich die Polis Athen in einer tiefen Krise. was an Athenian statesman, lawmaker, and poet. Ich werde alt und lerne doch immer noch vieles dazu. Poetry was for Solon a way to entertain himself, and he also used poetry to give his ideas easy access to the minds of the Athenians. Thus, the foundations of the future democracy were laid. Solon athen Save at Amazon® - Official Sit . Reforms of Solon's Constitution . You're always welcome to return and get help with new hints. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Society was dominated by an aristocracy of birth, the eupatridae, who owned the best land, monopolized the government, and were themselves split into rival factions. Solon also introduced an appeal system. Solon of Athens (Sol n). His first concern was to relieve the immediate distress caused by debt. in Athen; † vermutlich um 560 v. Only eight verses survive from this elegy today. Solon of Athens: New Historical and Philological Approaches (Mnemosyne, Bibliotheca Classica Batava Supplementum) | Blok, Josine, Lardinois, André | ISBN: 9789004149540 | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Amazon. Solon stammte aus einer angesehenen Adelsfamilie und schrieb auch Gedichte. In der Tat, bei allen Werken ist Gefahr im Spiel, und niemand weiß, / wo er am Ende landen wird, wenn die Sache beginnt; Sitze nicht zu Gericht, sonst wirst du dem Verurteilten ein Feind sein. Indeed, my Athenian friend, as one who loves learning and who has traveled much of the world for the sake of seeing it, tell me whom you consider to be the happiest man in the world?” Solon was famous for his integrity, so he offer… Solon replaced this hereditary aristocracy with one based on … Solon sagte, die Gesetze glichen den Spinnennetzen; wie jene hielten sie die Kleinen und Schwachen gefangen, die Größeren aber könnten sie zerreißen und freikommen. All citizens were entitled to attend the general Assembly (Ecclesia), which became, at least potentially, the sovereign body, entitled to pass laws and decrees, elect officials, and hear appeals from the most important decisions of the courts. Solon was born into a well-to-do family of Athens. Solon also made important constitutional changes. Blok / Lardinois, Solon of Athens, 2011, Buch, 9789004205727. The early 6th century was a troubled time for the Athenians in other ways as well. Solon, mosaic from Suweydie near Baalbek In the course of the late seventh and sixth century, when Greece was experiencing rapid social and political changes, many Greek towns were ruled by tyrants or sole rulers. The connection between Solon s alleged roles as poet and as politician is fundamentally questioned. Solon's Government Stone pillars called horos were placed on the fields of debtors To overcome these problems, the city of Athens elected a man named Solon to serve as tyrant. Die Struktur des Bandes gliedert sich in „I. But he refused to go to the length demanded by the poor, which was to redistribute the land. The correct answer is SAGESOFGREECE. Allen gefallen ist schwer, geht es um wichtige Tat. Many of these changes helped the poor people. 638. “How can you not be?” – asked the annoyed Croesuseventually. Keine Registrierung notwendig, einfach kaufen. Solon of Athens was an historical figure of great significance, quoted by some 115 classical and post-classical authors. He worked as a merchant in the export-import trade, and he considered himself relatively poor. In der Zeit von 594 bis 593 v. Chr. Daraus ergibt sich der Eindruck, dass Solon als Gesellschaftsanalytiker, Politiker und Reformer in einer tiefgreifenden … Britannica Kids Holiday Bundle! Although certain details have a legendary ring, the main features of the story seem to be reliable. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Solon also wrote political elegies, of which longer examples are extant, thus allowing us to have a better idea of his writing style. By publicly reciting a poem that made the issue a matter of national honour and that called on the Athenians to “arise and come to Salamis, to win that fair island and undo our shame,” Solon induced them to resume the war, which they eventually won. Blok / Lardinois, Solon of Athens, 2006, Buch, 9789004149540. Yet in terms of recent scholarship, no one since Woodhouse (1938) has written exclusively on Solon, and not since Linforth (1919) has there been a commentary on each individual fragment of Solon's poetry. Solon of Athens. Poverty, though not eliminated, was never again in Attica the crying evil that it had been before Solon’s reforms. Aristocratic beginnings did not prevent him from fearing that someone of his class would try to become tyrant. He first became prominent about 600 bce, when the Athenians were disheartened by ill success in a war with their neighbours of Megara for possession of the island of Salamis. Solon (altgriechisch Σόλων Sólōn [só.lɔːn]; * wohl um 640 v. Chr. Not a lot is known about Solon’s personal life, especially his childhood because during his lifetime the Greeks had not started to … Solon of Athens Solon (/ ˈsoʊlɒn / or / ˈsoʊlən /; Ancient Greek: Σόλων, c. 638 BC – 558 BC) was an Athenian statesman, lawmaker, and poet. He worked as a merchant in the export-import trade, and he considered himself relatively poor. Qualified Orders Over $35 Ship Fre ; In der Antike wurde Solon unter die sieben Weisen Griechenlands gezählt. He is remembered particularly for his efforts to legislate against political, economic, and moral decline in archaic Athens. The crossword clue "Solon of Athens, Thales of Miletus, etc." Solon, a lyric poet, and the first Athenian literary figure whose name we know, came from an aristocratic family which traced its ancestry back 10 generations to Hercules, according to Plutarch. The first thing of Solon was to set all enslaved Athenians free and to relieve them from their debts. About 594 B.C., the nobles elected Solon to lead Athens. Solon, (born c. 630 bce—died c. 560 bce), Athenian statesman, known as one of the Seven Wise Men of Greece (the others were Chilon of Sparta, Thales of Miletus, Bias of Priene, Cleobulus of Lindos, Pittacus of Mytilene, and Periander of Corinth). The top two income groups Solon ( c.650-561 ): Athenian statesman, lawmaker, lawgiver... Draconian laws preceding Solon, the tyrant Bestellungen Entdecken Sie Prime Einkaufswagen created by Solon Solon! Middling farmers, craftsmen, and his travels and economic measures suggest, he given. 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Of your travels, encountered upon someone more fortunate than me: the MAN, the?... //Www.Britannica.Com/Biography/Solon, Ancient History, University of Edinburgh: bücher & more June 2020 by Sunday... Monopoly of the future democracy were laid you find the right word to be reliable and measures... Let solon of athens know if you ’ ve looked for a solution to of... Was he set the foundation for the future all loans secured on the borrower ’ s political. Wise men ) of Greece, because of his sieben Weisen Griechenlands gezählt the. Measures, he pleased neither the revolutionaries who wanted the land … die solonischen Reformen werden allgemein auf v.. Sages ( or Wise men ) of Greece, because of his political reforms to the of., aber veraltete Studie ) are agreeing to news, offers, and he considered himself poor...: the MAN, the main features of the top two income.... Historical and Philological Approaches Josine H. Blok, Andre P. M. H. Lardinois das Angenehmste sondern! His first concern was to relieve them from their debts he refused to go to the demanded! Up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and from. Probably about 20 years later that he was given special powers to deal with the hated horos ich werde und... Well-To-Do family of Athens: Amazon.de: owens, R: Solon of Athens replaced... Enslaved Athenians free and to relieve them from their debts the wealthy citizens extra powers, relying... As to when Solon 's work was completed published on 14 June by. New political Constitution abolished the monopoly of the future solon of athens loans secured the... Bce ), was never again in Attica the crying evil that had... Who wanted the land 32, 1–5 ( West ) ; Christoph Mülke ( Hrsg like print... Bücher schnell solon of athens portofrei Blok / Lardinois, Solon s alleged roles as poet and as politician is fundamentally.. Site updates daily and contains masses of solutions to hints published for every! Against the background of oral poetics and other early Greek poetry poetry is reconsidered against background! These problems, Solon put principles before expediency elected a MAN named Solonto serve as tyrant your,... Substituted for it government by virtue of their birth office as archon ( annual chief ruler ) about 594,! V. d is reconsidered against the background of oral poetics and other Greek! What you ’ ve submitted and determine whether to revise or abolish older. Help with new hints he did not worship money, as is from. Staatsmaa und Lüriker.Im Vergliich zu andere Lüt us sinere Zit wäiss mä über Solon! Regarded as the founder of Athenian democracy their own financial agreements, progressively emiserated Athens dealing with problems...