Match the dates of these major events in Roman history with the description of each event. Image Credit: shorthistory One of the biggest event of this war was Hannibal Barca’s supreme riseand subsequent defeat. Second Punic War - Second Punic War Battles. A chance to pull together the key themes of the depth study, to allow students to engage with overarching general questions about the Second Punic War, similar to the style of essay questions that they will find in the examination. Any cookies that may not be particularly necessary for the website to function and is used specifically to collect user personal data via analytics, ads, other embedded contents are termed as non-necessary cookies. This category only includes cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of the website. However, the Romans indulged in small and uneventful ‘off the battlefield fights’ to take on the enemy front. This war was fought under the command of Hannibal who fought for Carthage while Romans fought under various generals. They were drawn into battle after an exhausting journey with no food, the result being that most of them were unable to put up a good fight. Key events during the life of Hamilcar Barca: He soon decided on the most opportune time to pull off a surprise attack and started his army’s march across the Alps, which were sparsely populated at the time. Battles. The Second Punic War was one of the bloodiest wars fought in the ancient world. Even second-hand accounts can be hard to come by, so it's significant that in their A History of Rome, historians M. Cary and H.H. There were three main fronts in this war: Italy, where Hannibal defeated the Romans in repeated battles; Hispania, where Hannibal’s younger brother defended Carthaginian colonial cities with gusto; and Sicily, where the Romans never lost their supremacy. Even though Hannibal’s army invaded Italy from the north and resoundingly defeated the Roman army in several battles, he could never achieve the ultimate goal of causing a political break between Rome and its allies. The biggest spectacle of the Second Punic War was … By the end of the war, Hispania was now no longer under Carthaginian rule, and Rome had seized control over a large area that was previously within Carthage. Ultimately, Rome won the Second Punic War, but it was not a foregone conclusion. These cookies will be stored in your browser only with your consent. Then by the shore of Lake Trasimene, he was all prepared for the enemy with his ambush. Regardless, the march of Hannibal and his army is the stuff of legend to this day. You also have the option to opt-out of these cookies. Second Punic War Background Carthaginian-Macedonian Treaty. The first and second Punic wars (264–241 bce and 218–201 bce) had effectively deprived Carthage of its political power. He withdrew northward to rendezvous with Gnaeus Scipio's army, just as a third Carthaginian for… This defeat had a huge psychological effect on the Romans for it sent ripples of panic through Rome, and they started having doubts about the very future of their city. Rise and Fall of Hannibal. ... the First Punic War against Carthage for control of the island of Sicily. One of the biggest victories for Hannibal and his allies in the Second Punic War was at Cannae on the banks of the Aufidus in 216 BC. Carthage meted out severe punishments to generals who failed in their mission, even if through events beyond their control, with several commanders suffering death by … See Carthaginian-Macedonian Treaty. The Ebro Treaty is what ended the Second Punic War. Introduction The Punic Wars were a defining moment in the expansion of the Roman Republic, with the Second Punic War (218 – 201 BC (Grant, 1960)) playing the part of a corner stone in the bridge to create the powerful Roman Empire. Sempronius Longus’ 40,000 infantry positioned themselves in a triple line with 4,000 cavalry on the side. We'll assume you're ok with this, but you can opt-out if you wish. But without strong leadership and the resources they had in the previous war, Carthage could only put up a fight for a mere three years. This paper analyzes the Second Punic War using the Contextual and Operational Elements found in the Campaign Planning Model to determine how Rome and Carthage conducted the war, and whether they maintained congruency as each respective country pursued their national objective. In addition, the Carthaginians had to abide by the Roman war indemnity that allowed Carthage Naval forces to deploy only 10 ships. All Rights Reserved. The war lasted for a whole 17 years with the ultimate victory of the Romans. The Second Punic War (218–201 BC) was the second of three wars fought between Carthage and Rome, the two main powers of the western Mediterranean in the 3rd century BC. That he refrained from attacking the city of Rome at the height of his successful campaign still surprises historians. The agreement was to offer protection to these 10 ships from the pirates. They started by occupying the Roman colonies of Placentia and Cremona. This battle led to a loss of 2700 cavalrymen and about 45,500 infantry soldiers for the Romans. Those 17 years of war were nothing if not eventful. All this tension culminated in a series of three wars fought between the two states from 264 BC to 146 BC. The Roman Empire begins when Octavius appoints himself Augustus … The biggest boost to the Romans was the support of the Massyli tribe, which had originally fought along with the Carthaginians but sided with the Romans after the Battle of Ilipa. The Roman military under Scipio had learned many lessons from Hannibal’s tactics and were ready to outwit and beat the Carthaginians in the final showdown. It was fought on the shores of Aufidus River and saw Numidian horse cavalry fight off the Romans with courage and tact. Were the ingenious strategist’s legendary victories also the reason for the downfall of this once incredible empire? The Romans suffered such massive setbacks at the hands of the Carthaginians that they appointed a dictator as their commander in chief called Quintus Fabius Maximus temporarily. The City was a Greek colony allied to Rome, which sparks the beginning of the Second Punic war. A dispute between the cities … Here is a list of the top 10 biggest events of the Second Punic War: At a time when Hannibal was marching unfathomable distances with his infantry, cavalry and war elephants, the Romans were also facing a stiff uprising among the Gallic tribes, further worsening the situation for them. While the First Punic War had been fought largely over control of Sicily, the Second Punic War involved confrontations in Spain, Italy, Sicily, Sardinia, and North Africa. The Barcid was the main driver of the conflict between Carthage and Rome. Rome was unable to drive him out, but he, also, was unable to get enough support from Carthage to make any progress against Rome. With his … The Battle of Cannae was one of the greatest victories for Hannibal and his troops in the 2nd Punic War. Some 6,000 infantry who were able to escape from the battlefield were caught by the Numidians and then forced to lay their arms and surrender. The Romans won the Battle of Zama by 202 BC because of their massive military strength, and also because of the help rendered by the Massyli Tribe. Fought in Italy in 218 BC, the Battle of Trebia was a major battle between the Carthaginians led by Hannibal and the Roman military under Sempronius Longus. The government of Carthage was divided over their support for Hannibal in Spain and they were not really in favor of another war with Rome. In fact, Hannibal’s route across the Alps has been a matter of debate among historians with many of them having their own opinions on the matter. His major victories that came later in the war were entirely dependent on intelligence information. Publius Scipio moved quickly to counter the new offensive but was ambushed by the Punic cavalry, losing 2,000 men. For 17 years the two states struggled for supremacy, primarily in Italy and Iberia, but also on the islands of Sicily and Sardiniaand, towards the end of the war, in North Africa. This is the start of the Second Punic War. Save my name and email in this browser for the next time I comment. This chronology includes references to some of the other fronts on which Rome was fighting at the same time and the importation of the stone Great Mother from Asia Minor that Rome brought home to help her reverse the trend and win the war… This website uses cookies to improve your experience while you navigate through the website. Hannibal rose to become a great leader of the Carthaginians that can be regarded as a huge spectacle of the war. 15 Julius Caesar Facts You Might Not Be Aware Of, 15 Greatest Military Leaders of the Ancient World, 13 Fascinating Facts About Hannibal Barca, 11 Forgotten Kingdoms That Are Vanished From History, 13 Things About Davy Crockett You Should Know, 13 Battle of Bosworth Facts You Should Know, 15 Fascinating Facts You Didn't Know About Napoleon…. This timeline goes from 753 BC to 27 BC … So much so that according to Livy, it was “the most memorable of all wars that were ever waged – the war which the Carthaginians, under the leadership of Hannibal, fought with the Roman people. But despite this advantage, the Carthaginians could not avoid ultimate defeat. Overview of the Second Punic War. But when the Carthaginians started their campaign against ancient Rome, the Gallic tribes readily struck an alliance with them to fight the Romans at the front. A civil war breaks out following his death over making Rome a republic again. Out of these, the cookies that are categorized as necessary are stored on your browser as they are essential for the working of basic functionalities of the website. But unfortunately he failed and killed in action .if that army had reached Hannibal,s hands ,it would have changed the course of the war. His strategies saw him lure the Romans into traps and beat them at their own game. Carthage was also forced to give up its fleet and pay a large indemnity to Rome in silver. While this war was a lot shorter than the First Punic War, it is most well known for the Carthage leader Hannibal who caused massive damage to the Romans. The Second Punic War happened between 218 BC and 201 BC. The Roman Empire was one of the greatest civilizations in history. The Roman army constituted a force that was superior both in terms of arms and skill when compared to the Carthaginians. This battle can be termed as one of the biggest events in this war where the Romans displayed a powerful performance with the help of the cavalry. After immense material and human losses on both sides the Carthag… Second Punic War was also marked by the happenings of Gallic uprisings that made this war a much more complicated affair for the Romans. His three sons, Hannibal, Hasdrubal, and Mago, were Carthaginian generals in the Second Punic War. This result sent chills of doubt through Rome and its allies and boosted the confidence of the Carthaginians and other rival tribes. Ancient Rome and Carthage had a long history of conflict that lasted for more than a century. But opting out of some of these cookies may affect your browsing experience. It was a complete success. Barca with his intelligent mind created traps for the Romans and defeated them on many occasions. Unlike most of the battles of the Second Punic War, the Romans fared better with cavalry and the Carthaginians had a larger number of infantry. Advancing into the territory of some of Rome's new Spanish allies near Acra Leuce they defeated the local tribal forces. Hannibal had always been well informed of the situation in Rome, fed with secret information by his Gallic spies all over Rome. The battle, which went on to be known as the Battle of Lake Trasimene, saw an effective Carthaginian attack on Roman consul Flaminius and his army of about 25,000 men between the hills at Cortona and Lake Trasimene. The web's source of information for Ancient History: definitions, articles, timelines, maps, books, and illustrations. Barca with his intelligent mind created traps for the Romans and defeated them on many occasions. It is mandatory to procure user consent prior to running these cookies on your website. By 146 BC, Carthage was destroyed by the Romans who became the rulers of the Mediterranean region. Historyly.com is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Amazon.com. Without a doubt one of the biggest events during the Second Punic War was when Hannibal crossed the Alps to catch the Romans off guard. Nevertheless, its commercial enterprises expanded rapidly in the 2nd century bce, exciting the envy of Rome’s growing mercantile community. These cookies do not store any personal information. His cleverness and tact were appreciated even by the opposing Romans. Rome controlled over two million square miles stretching from the Rhine River to Egypt and from Britain to Asia Minor. The famous Roman general, Scipio Africanus, took a leaf out of Hannibal’s book to strengthen Roman intelligence. The dictator continued with this strategy, resulting in an agitated Hannibal and arrest of many Carthaginians as prisoners. Carthaginians brought 80 elephants to the battle. He got caught and had his hands cut off as a punishment. But soon, Fabius became unpopular in Rome since his tactics did not lead to a quick end to the war and he was removed from his post in the 216 BC election. Feb 1, 2013 218 BC- Hannibal's Movement The Second Punic War was fought from 218 BC to 201 BC and is best remembered for the huge battles fought between the Carthaginians under Hannibal and the Romans under several different generals. Roman general Flaminius was also killed in action. Polybius even noted: “How much more serious was the defeat of Cannae than those which preceded it can be seen by the behavior of Rome’s allies; before that fateful day, their loyalty remained unshaken, now it began to waver for the simple reason that they despaired of Roman power.”. After the death of Hannibal’s father, Hamilcar, Hannibal came to power and he … Scullard say that unlike earlier periods of Rome, the history of the period of the First Punic War comes from annalists who had contact with actual eye-witnesses. Ebro Treaty. From the Siege of Saguntum to the march through the Pyrenees and the Rhone and then the death-defying ascent and descent on the Alps, Hannibal’s crossing was one of the major achievements of the Second Punic War, and one of the most celebrated achievements of any military force in ancient warfare. He spent the period between the First and Second Punic Wars building up an empire in Spain, and preparing for the inevitable renewal of hostilities. Summary of the Work Plan: Causes of Wars Plan: Events in Greece Extension of the First Plan of the Work The True Theory of Historical Causes Causes of the Second Punic War Fabius Pictor on the Cause of the Punic War The Credibility of Fabius Pictor First Cause of the Second Punic War Second Cause of the War Hannibal's … The Second Punic War was often known as Hannibal’s War in Rome.It was in a real sense the personal war of Hannibal. 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