... some of them reach the stigma and achieve pollination. How Vallisneria and Seagrasses achieve pollination? How do sponge and Penicillium reproduce? Hydrophilous pollination in Phyllospadix 69 Fig. How Vallisneria and seagrasses achieve pollination. Wind pollination is common in grasses and water pollination in vallisneria. Because pollen grains have no power of independent movement. The bat holds the flower by clasping the stamen ball to its breast. State the advantages of vivipary over ovipary. Pollination takes place on the surface of the water with free-floating male flowers tipping into the surface depression created by the larger, attached female flowers. Answer: Types of cross pollination: Cross pollination is always brought about by some external ágentÅ¡. In replicated plots of 1 m 2, the vegetation canopy was removed in gaps of zero (control), 25%, 50% and … Flowering plants have developed certain outbreeding device to discourage self-pollination and to encourage cross – pollination . d Anther dehiscence and pollen release commencing at base of spadix, bar: 1 mm 11. Question 5. Grasses. Phyllospadix scouleri, details of male spadix. (3) Transfer of pollen grains ... of water pollinated plants are Vallisneria and Hydrilla which grow in fresh water and several marine sea-grasses such as Zostera. underwater pollination referred to as hyphydrophily, e.g., Ceratophyllum, Majus, Zostera. There is no natural death in single-celled organisms why? Because of the specific gravity of these pollen they freely float at any depth, In vallisneria, the female flowers reach the surface of water by the long stalk and the male flowers are released onto the surface of water. Physical disturbance has often been invoked to control genotypic diversity in sessile clonal organisms, yet experimental evidence is lacking. A unique example of this type is Zostera mariana (a submerged marine perennial) in which pollen grains are long (up to 250pm) and needle-like resembling pollen tubes. Give one example each. Give the features of these plants to facilitate pollination. I studied the effects of physical disturbance on genet dynamics and genotypic diversity in a clonal marine angiosperm, Zostera marina (eelgrass). c Retinacules diverged, bar: 5 mm. Explain how some plants are adapted for achieving pollination through wind. 2. While taking nectar its breast becomes laden with numerous pollen grains, some of which get deposited on the stigma of the flower when it visits next. Q 6. pollination, the following types of cross pollination are recognised. Q 2. 5. Adaptation in anemophillous flowers to achieve pollination. Q 3. Pollen grains are light weight and non-sticky; Stigama is feathery. (2 marks each) Q 1. One of these is not an example of such outbreeding device. Fruits mature under the water. Answer: Pollination brought about by the agency of wind is called anemophily. Pollination in Adansonia digitata: In this plant, the ball of stamens and the stigma project beyond the floral envelops. Comparatively small and unattractive. The hydrophilous seagrass Posidonia australis has a wide range of multilocus outcrossing rates (t), which vary from 0 to 0.89, with “apparent” outcrossing rates varying from 0 to 0.42 among the seven populations sampled.This pattern of outcrossing rate indicates that water pollination (hydrophily) is less uniform than wind pollination and more similar to animal pollination in its variability. Vallisneria. (a) Zostera (b) Vallisneria (c) Hydrilla (d) cannabis 6. The male plant bears a large number of minute male flowers in a small spadix surrounded by a spathe and borne on a short stalk, whereas the female plant bears … Explain the mechanism of pollination in water plants like vallisneria and sea grass (Zostera). Differentiate between zoospores and conidia. 1. ( Pollination is the mechanism to achieve this objective ). Which of the following is not a water pollinated plant? Q 4. Answer: 1. Flowers do not produce nector and fragrance. Based on the agents involved ¡n cross. ( 4 × 5 = 20 ) Question 27. 2. b Retinacules erected to form a marginal palisade, bar: 5 mm. Explain the importance of syngamy and meiosis in a sexual life cycle of an organism. a Young spadix (spathe removed), retinacules enclosing anthers, bar: 1 mm. The mode of pollination in Vallisneria (submerged aquatic plant) is as follows: The plant is dioecious. Q 5. Of an organism water pollination in Vallisneria plants have developed certain outbreeding device: 1 mm to a... 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