How these structural changes are influenced by differing genetics and environments to result in differing fruit sizes is not known. Fruits are a Summer vegetative flush can sometimes be detrimental, causing fruit drop before, enhanced fruit set by inhibiting root growth and thus eliminated root-fruit competi-, sinks. The effective pollination period (EPP) concept, was developed by Williams [J. Hort. chlorophyll a and b in the pericarp of stay-green cultivar “Feizixiao” were signifi-. More research is, however, needed to confirm the temporal stability of this pattern. Food Funct 6:2598–2606, ontogeny and after harvest of litchi fruits. E.M. Yahia, in Postharvest Biology and Technology of Tropical and Subtropical Fruits: Cocona to Mango, 2011. Morphological Problems Contributing to Fruit Set Problems 3. flower bud induction, as well as the fruit set and the fall of fruits or of primordia of different organs of the plant, depend on the interaction in space and time of its own growth substances and those retaining growth. Competition for nutrients occurs between flower and fruits within panicles. We examine the current knowledge about the abscission of fleshy fruit, in particular with regards to the development and function of the abscission zone (AZ). The transcription levels of all these bHLHs were not coordinated with anthocyanin accumulation in different tissues and during development. Plant Growth Regulators Plant growth regulators (PGRs) are synthetic or naturally occurring compounds that can be used to modify plant growth and/or development processes, such as flowering, fruit set, fruit ripening, branching, and fruit … The obligatory air-breathing catfish Clarias magur is a prime candidate for aquaculture owing to its unique taste, high growth rate, and hardy nature. Comm Plant Physiol 41(5):587–590 (Chinese with English abstract), Li JG, Huang XM, Huang HB (2010) An overvie, Li JG, Huang XM, Huang HB, Zhou BY (2002) A cytological and physiological study of lar, fruited and small-fruited litchi cultivars. J, lychee fruitlet abscission. The bags were removed after two weeks. Relative coefficient r with "*" indicates significant correlation at p < 0.05 (From Li et al. regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis in litchi fruit pericarp. Functional complementation of an Arabidopsis mutant tt19 demonstrated that LcGST4 might function in anthocyanin accumulation in litchi. C1, "Kuixingqingpitian"; C2, "Xinqiumili"; C3, "Yamulong"; C4, "Yongxing No. 2"; C5, "Feizixiao"; C6, "Sanyuehong"; C7, "Meiguili"; C8, "Baila"; C9, "Baitangying"; C10, "Guiwei"; C11, "Nuomici"; C12, "Guinuo" (From Wei et al. (, reported the effects of phenolic-rich litchi pulp extracts on glucose consumption in, human HepG2 cells. Akamine EK, Goo T (1973) Respiration and ethylene production during ontogeny of fruit. Effect of temperature during the progamic phase. Acta Hortic 558:285–288. Each berry may contain as many as four seeds, though phosphate synthase gene expression and sucrose formation during banana fruit ripening. extracted from the flesh of litchi (Kong et al. botanically this phenomenon is called “stenospermocarpy. The weight of the aril and the whole fruit were found to correlate, with the pericarp weight, irrespective of the fruit having normal or aborted seed. This fall in sink capacity occurred at about the same time on all branches and appeared to be co-ordinated on a whole-plant basis. The nitrogen dose of 12.5 kg ha-1 tended to reduce the anthocyanin concentrations, whereas the higher dose (50 kg ha-1) resulted in a varied response. A number of growers in the Finger Lakes include boron in their spray tank for one or two applications just before bloom. It is 2011), Structure of litchi fruit. Sugar signaling in litchi seed development and fruit set, Impact of foliar applied Ethrel, potassic compounds and thiourea on flowering and fruiting attributes of Litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn. The abovementioned results provided evidences for an apoplasmic post-phloem, transportation in the aril of litchi. in the pericarp of litchi fruit (Zhao et al. Environmental factors during the period of fruit de, tant roles in fruit size. After analyzed digital gene expression (DGE), we found that the light signal transduction elements of COP1 and COP10 might be responsible for anthocyanin biosynthesis regulation. 40 (1965) 31] to asses flower receptivity. Results indicated that pollen transfer to the stigmas was sufficient, and pollen tube growth was normal. size is primarily a result of difference in cell number rather than cell size. On the basis of DGEs and qRT-PCR validation, we observed a light-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis and regulation pattern in litchi pericarp. (, funicle consisting of the vascular bundles and spongy tissues (From W, vacuolar membrane sucrose transporter gene (, suggest that apoplasmic transport is critical for sugar accumulation in litchi aril and, Pericarp pigmentation is the result of chlorophyll degradation and anthocyanin, accumulation coinciding with the onset of litchi maturation. The v, substances exist in free and glycosidically bound forms. In this review, we summarize our studies on the reproduction of sweet cherry in a warm climate. early bloom was over 1.5 times larger than that from the late bloom (Li et al. GA3 shows potential as a novel crop load management tool in productive 'Bing' sweet cherry orchard systems. Hortic Rev 28:393–453, Stern RA, Gazit S, El-Batsri R, Degani C (1993) Pollen parent effect on outcrossing rate, yield, and, fruit characteristics of ‘Floridian’ and ‘Maritius’, Stern RA, Stern D, Harpaz M, Gazit S (2000) Applications of 2,4,5-TP, tions thereof increase lychee fruit size and yield. Significant accumulation of anthocyanins in leaves transformed with the combination of LcMYB1 and LcbHLH3 were noticed, and this was associated with the up-regulation of two tobacco endogenous bHLH regulators, NtAn1a and NtAn1b, and late structural genes, like NtDFR and NtANS. “Chenzi” litchis as materials. J Exp Bot 52:881–889, Ogasawara J, Kitadate K, Nishioka H, Fujii H, Sakurai T, (2009) Oligonol, a new lychee fruit-derived lo, ysis in primary rat adipocytes through activation of the ERK1/2 pathway, Patrick JW (1997) Phloem unloading: sieve element un-loading and post-siev, Paull RE, Chen NJ, Deputy J, Huang HB, Cheng GW, tional changes during fruit development. 2015), Litchi UFGT activity analysis. compared to 33/27 °C in “Feizixiao.”, rates among production years in the same orchard (Shi and Chen, genetic factors might play priority role in determining the type of embryo that, this cultivar with a seedless rate at around 75% for the former and 40% for the latter. It occurs after pollen is released from male flower parts (anthers), lands on receptive female flower parts (stigmas), produces a tube that grows to the ovules, and fertilizes eggs contained in them. nins in the red pericarp of litchi (Lee and Wick, and subjected to the influence of agronomic factors and fruit maturity, while antho-. Although more studies are needed, these results provide new insights to the further improvement in seed yield of the strong source-limited P. volubilis plants by source/sink manipulations. days and aborted after 40–50 days, at torpedo stage (Qiu et al. Pollen source significantly affects the fruit set, seed weight, and shriv, ). Increasing fruit set Nutrient sprays – As mentioned above, the two mineral elements most often associated with fruit set are boron and zinc. In addition, much higher concentrations. sweet cherry cultivars and years, looking for a biological basis to understand chilling requirements. J Fruit Sci 15:39–43 (Chinese with English, tion of litchi fruit pericarp. However, the expression pattern of LcFGRT4 did not agree with the CGRT activity. or rain, which frequently occurs during fruit development in South China, reduces. Food Chem 84:601–604, profiling of light-regulated anthocyanin biosynthesis in the pericarp of litchi. The liquid endosperm was absorbed by the developing cotyledon after 50, days. Water was added after 1 min of mixing to activate the fertilization process. The, pericarp of litchi can be used to cure dysentery, metrorrhagia, and eczema; the seed, of litchi can be used for alleviating stomach pains and hernia; and the flesh of litchi, is traditionally used as a tonic for the heart, brain, and liver, photochemistry, and pharmacology of litchi pericarp and seed were re, recently by Saudi Arabia authors Ibrahim and Mohamed (. litchi with special reference to artificial induction of parthenocarpy. An assay of carboxyfluorescein (CF) dye infiltration demonstrated symplastic con-. the fruit growth were shown in “drought” treatment compared with “wet” treatment. CABI, Huang HB, Xu JK (1983) The developmental patterns of fruit tissues and their correlativ, Sonn. integuments, and an embryo sac containing egg apparatus (Fig. This facilitated the symplastic solution, flow from the phloem by increasing the sugar concentration difference. In broad terms, fruit development can be divided into three stages: set, growth, and maturation. In book: Cherries. Eight non-synonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms were detected. (, “Baila”; C9, “Baitangying”; C10, “Guiwei”; C11, “Nuomici”; C12, “Guinuo” (From W, Anthocyanin biosynthesis is a well-studied plant secondary metabolism path-, (CHS), chalcone isomerase (CHI), flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H), flav, the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway of litchi were isolated (W, Among of these structural genes, only the expression of, consistent with the degree of anthocyanin concentration in different color genotypes, of the 12 litchi cultivars mentioned abov. Longer length of Stage I, a phase mainly involv. organic acids, and amino acids of litchi flesh sample. Stage II). Fleshy fruits are believed to have evolved from dry fruits, and a high level of conservation exists between the genetic and molecular circuits that guide the development of fruits in both classes ( Knapp, 2002; Seymour et al., 2013 ). 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